About the Authors

Joseph Humphrey Kofi Bonney

Roles Conceptualization, Investigation, Supervision, Writing – original draft

Kbonney@noguchi.ug.edu.gh

Affiliation Virology Department, Noguchi Memorial Institute of Medical Research, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana

Takaya Hayashi

Contributed equally to this work with: Takaya Hayashi, Esinam Agbosu, Deborah Pratt, Stephen Nyarko, Franklin Asiedu-Bekoe, Badu Sarkodie

Roles Supervision, Writing – review & editing

Affiliations Virology Department, Noguchi Memorial Institute of Medical Research, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan

Samuel Dadzie

Roles Investigation, Supervision, Writing – review & editing

‡ These authors also contributed equally to this work.

Affiliation Virology Department, Noguchi Memorial Institute of Medical Research, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana

Esinam Agbosu

Contributed equally to this work with: Takaya Hayashi, Esinam Agbosu, Deborah Pratt, Stephen Nyarko, Franklin Asiedu-Bekoe, Badu Sarkodie

Roles Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Virology Department, Noguchi Memorial Institute of Medical Research, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana

Deborah Pratt

Contributed equally to this work with: Takaya Hayashi, Esinam Agbosu, Deborah Pratt, Stephen Nyarko, Franklin Asiedu-Bekoe, Badu Sarkodie

Roles Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Virology Department, Noguchi Memorial Institute of Medical Research, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana

Stephen Nyarko

Contributed equally to this work with: Takaya Hayashi, Esinam Agbosu, Deborah Pratt, Stephen Nyarko, Franklin Asiedu-Bekoe, Badu Sarkodie

Roles Data curation, Formal analysis, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Virology Department, Noguchi Memorial Institute of Medical Research, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana

Franklin Asiedu-Bekoe

Contributed equally to this work with: Takaya Hayashi, Esinam Agbosu, Deborah Pratt, Stephen Nyarko, Franklin Asiedu-Bekoe, Badu Sarkodie

Roles Investigation, Methodology, Validation, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Disease Surveillance Department, Ghana Health Service, Accra, Ghana

Eiji Ido

Roles Data curation, Formal analysis, Resources, Supervision, Writing – review & editing

‡ These authors also contributed equally to this work.

Affiliation Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan

Badu Sarkodie

Contributed equally to this work with: Takaya Hayashi, Esinam Agbosu, Deborah Pratt, Stephen Nyarko, Franklin Asiedu-Bekoe, Badu Sarkodie

Roles Data curation, Investigation, Methodology, Validation, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Public Health Division, Ghana Health Service, Accra, Ghana

Nobuo Ohta

Roles Funding acquisition, Resources, Writing – review & editing

‡ These authors also contributed equally to this work.

Affiliation Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan

Shoji Yamaoka

Roles Formal analysis, Funding acquisition, Project administration, Resources, Validation, Writing – review & editing

‡ These authors also contributed equally to this work.

Affiliation Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interest exists.