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Table of Contents

May 2017

Brugia malayi microfilariae found in the bloodstream of the infected human host are surrounded by a translucent sheath derived from the embryonic egg shell. The sheath appears to protect the microfilariae from interaction with the immune system. Treatment with calcium chloride results in loss of the sheath. The image shows the luminescence of an exsheathed microfilariae under light microscopy. Schroeder et al.

Image Credit: Rachel A. Lawrence

Editorial

Viewpoints

NTD policy priorities: Science, values, and agenda setting

Ana S. Iltis, Kirstin R. W. Matthews

The risk of transmission of a viral haemorrhagic fever infection in a United Kingdom laboratory

Robert J. Shorten, Eleri Wilson-Davies

Policy Platform

Global practices in regard to implementation of preventive measures for leprosy

Laura Gillini, Erwin Cooreman, Tanya Wood, Venkata Rao Pemmaraju, Paul Saunderson

From Innovation to Application

Preheating of urine improves the specificity of urinary cryptococcal antigen testing using the lateral flow assay

Fábio Brito-Santos, Marcela de Faria Ferreira, Luciana Trilles, Mauro de Medeiros Muniz, Valdiléa Gonçalves Veloso dos Santos, Filipe Anibal Carvalho-Costa, Wieland Meyer, Bodo Wanke, Márcia dos Santos Lazéra

Symposiums

Successful treatment of 2 imported cases of Mansonella perstans infection

Hilmir Asgeirsson, Andreas Harling, Silvia Botero-Kleiven

Visceral leishmaniasis complicating idiopathic CD4+ T-cell lymphocytopenia: 2 case reports

Andrew Fox-Lewis, Diana N. J. Lockwood

“Locked in a cage”—A case of dengue virus 4 encephalitis

Deborah H. L. Ng, Sapna P. Sadarangani

Review

Melioidosis: Clinical impact and public health threat in the tropics

Ramar Perumal Samy, Bradley G. Stiles, Gautam Sethi, Lina H. K. Lim

Research Articles

Different features of Vδ2 T and NK cells in fatal and non-fatal human Ebola infections

Eleonora Cimini, Domenico Viola, Mar Cabeza-Cabrerizo, Antonella Romanelli, Nicola Tumino, Alessandra Sacchi, Veronica Bordoni, Rita Casetti, Federica Turchi, Federico Martini, Joseph A. Bore, Fara Raymond Koundouno, Sophie Duraffour, Janine Michel, Tobias Holm, Elsa Gayle Zekeng, Lauren Cowley, Isabel Garcia Dorival, Juliane Doerrbecker, Nicole Hetzelt, Jonathan H. J. Baum, Jasmine Portmann, Roman Wölfel, Martin Gabriel, Osvaldo Miranda, Graciliano Díaz, José E. Díaz, Yoel A. Fleites, Carlos A. Piñeiro, Carlos M. Castro, Lamine Koivogui, N’Faly Magassouba, Boubacar Diallo, Paula Ruibal, Lisa Oestereich, David M. Wozniak, Anja Lüdtke, Beate Becker-Ziaja, Maria R. Capobianchi, Giuseppe Ippolito, Miles W. Carroll, Stephan Günther, Antonino Di Caro, César Muñoz-Fontela, Chiara Agrati

Vaccination with a Leishmania infantum HSP70-II null mutant confers long-term protective immunity against Leishmania major infection in two mice models

José Carlos Solana, Laura Ramírez, Laura Corvo, Camila Indiani de Oliveira, Manoel Barral-Netto, José María Requena, Salvador Iborra, Manuel Soto

Fine-scale variation in microclimate across an urban landscape shapes variation in mosquito population dynamics and the potential of Aedes albopictus to transmit arboviral disease

Courtney C. Murdock, Michelle V. Evans, Taylor D. McClanahan, Kerri L. Miazgowicz, Blanka Tesla

Safety and efficacy of short course combination regimens with AmBisome, miltefosine and paromomycin for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Bangladesh

Ridwanur Rahman, Vishal Goyal, Rashidul Haque, Kazi Jamil, Abul Faiz, Rasheda Samad, Sally Ellis, Manica Balasegaram, Margriet den Boer, Suman Rijal, Nathalie Strub-Wourgaft, Fabiana Alves, Jorge Alvar, Bhawna Sharma

Epitope mapping of recombinant Leishmania donovani virulence factor A2 (recLdVFA2) and canine leishmaniasis diagnosis using a derived synthetic bi-epitope

Thais Melo Mendes, Eric Henrique Roma, Fernanda Costal-Oliveira, Lucas de Carvalho Dhom-Lemos, Cristina Monerat Toledo-Machado, Oscar Bruna-Romero, Daniella Castanheiras Bartholomeu, Ricardo Toshio Fujiwara, Carlos Chávez-Olórtegui

Optimising cluster survey design for planning schistosomiasis preventive chemotherapy

Sarah C. L. Knowles, Hugh J. W. Sturrock, Hugo Turner, Jane M. Whitton, Charlotte M. Gower, Samuel Jemu, Anna E. Phillips, Aboulaye Meite, Brent Thomas, Karsor Kollie, Catherine Thomas, Maria P. Rebollo, Ben Styles, Michelle Clements, Alan Fenwick, Wendy E. Harrison, Fiona M. Fleming

Albendazole increases the inflammatory response and the amount of Em2-positive small particles of Echinococcus multilocularis (spems) in human hepatic alveolar echinococcosis lesions

Franz J. Ricken, Juliane Nell, Beate Grüner, Julian Schmidberger, Tanja Kaltenbach, Wolfgang Kratzer, Andreas Hillenbrand, Doris Henne-Bruns, Peter Deplazes, Peter Moller, Peter Kern, Thomas F. E. Barth

Hookworm infection is associated with decreased CD4+ T cell counts in HIV-infected adult Ugandans

Bozena M. Morawski, Miya Yunus, Emmanuel Kerukadho, Grace Turyasingura, Logose Barbra, Andrew Mijumbi Ojok, Andrew R. DiNardo, Stefanie Sowinski, David R. Boulware, Rojelio Mejia

Unravelling the rate of action of hits in the Leishmania donovani box using standard drugs amphotericin B and miltefosine

Diana Tegazzini, Juan Cantizani, Imanol Peña, Julio Martín, Jose M. Coterón

Health beliefs of school-age rural children in podoconiosis-affected families: A qualitative study in Southern Ethiopia

Abebayehu Tora, Getnet Tadele, Abraham Aseffa, Colleen M. McBride, Gail Davey

Clonorchis sinensis antigens alter hepatic macrophage polarization in vitro and in vivo

Eun-Min Kim, You Shine Kwak, Myung-Hee YI, Ju Yeong Kim, Woon-Mok Sohn, Tai-Soon Yong

Using G6PD tests to enable the safe treatment of Plasmodium vivax infections with primaquine on the Thailand-Myanmar border: A cost-effectiveness analysis

Angela Devine, Minnie Parmiter, Cindy S. Chu, Germana Bancone, François Nosten, Ric N. Price, Yoel Lubell, Shunmay Yeung

“We do not bury dead livestock like human beings”: Community behaviors and risk of Rift Valley Fever virus infection in Baringo County, Kenya

Edna N. Mutua, Salome A. Bukachi, Bernard K. Bett, Benson A. Estambale, Isaac K. Nyamongo

MiR-277/4989 regulate transcriptional landscape during juvenile to adult transition in the parasitic helminth Schistosoma mansoni

Anna V. Protasio, Stijn van Dongen, Julie Collins, Leonor Quintais, Diogo M. Ribeiro, Florian Sessler, Martin Hunt, Gabriel Rinaldi, James J. Collins, Anton J. Enright, Matthew Berriman

Highly conserved type 1 pili promote enterotoxigenic E. coli pathogen-host interactions

Alaullah Sheikh, Rasheduzzaman Rashu, Yasmin Ara Begum, F. Matthew Kuhlman, Matthew A. Ciorba, Scott J. Hultgren, Firdausi Qadri, James M. Fleckenstein

Monitoring the elimination of human African trypanosomiasis: Update to 2014

José R. Franco, Giuliano Cecchi, Gerardo Priotto, Massimo Paone, Abdoulaye Diarra, Lise Grout, Raffaele C. Mattioli, Daniel Argaw

Dengue in Bali: Clinical characteristics and genetic diversity of circulating dengue viruses

Dewi Megawati, Sri Masyeni, Benediktus Yohan, Asri Lestarini, Rahma F. Hayati, Febrina Meutiawati, Ketut Suryana, Tangking Widarsa, Dewa G. Budiyasa, Ngurah Budiyasa, Khin S. A. Myint, R. Tedjo Sasmono

Measuring changes in transmission of neglected tropical diseases, malaria, and enteric pathogens from quantitative antibody levels

Benjamin F. Arnold, Mark J. van der Laan, Alan E. Hubbard, Cathy Steel, Joseph Kubofcik, Katy L. Hamlin, Delynn M. Moss, Thomas B. Nutman, Jeffrey W. Priest, Patrick J. Lammie

Single-sex infection with female Schistosoma mansoni cercariae mitigates hepatic fibrosis after secondary infection

Nicole Koslowski, Martina Sombetzki, Micha Loebermann, Robby Engelmann, Niels Grabow, Christoph H. Österreicher, Michael Trauner, Brigitte Mueller-Hilke, Emil C. Reisinger

The phylogeography of Myotis bat-associated rabies viruses across Canada

Susan Nadin-Davis, Noor Alnabelseya, M. Kimberly Knowles

wMel limits zika and chikungunya virus infection in a Singapore Wolbachia-introgressed Ae. aegypti strain, wMel-Sg

Cheong Huat Tan, PeiSze Jeslyn Wong, Meizhi Irene LI, HuiTing Yang, Lee Ching Ng, Scott Leslie O’Neill

Northern range expansion of the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus): Analysis of mosquito data from Connecticut, USA

Philip M. Armstrong, Theodore G. Andreadis, John J. Shepard, Michael C. Thomas

Mortality among blood donors seropositive and seronegative for Chagas disease (1996–2000) in São Paulo, Brazil: A death certificate linkage study

Ligia Capuani, Ana Luiza Bierrenbach, Airlane Pereira Alencar, Alfredo Mendrone Jr., João Eduardo Ferreira, Brian Custer, Antonio Luiz P. Ribeiro, Ester Cerdeira Sabino

Neotropical bats that co-habit with humans function as dead-end hosts for dengue virus

Amanda Vicente-Santos, Andres Moreira-Soto, Claudio Soto-Garita, Luis Guillermo Chaverri, Andrea Chaves, Jan Felix Drexler, Juan Alberto Morales, Alejandro Alfaro-Alarcón, Bernal Rodríguez-Herrera, Eugenia Corrales-Aguilar

Development of a movement-based in vitro screening assay for the identification of new anti-cestodal compounds

Dominic Ritler, Reto Rufener, Heinz Sager, Jacques Bouvier, Andrew Hemphill, Britta Lundström-Stadelmann

Outdoor spatial spraying against dengue: A false sense of security among inhabitants of Hermosillo, Mexico

Pablo A. Reyes-Castro, Lucía Castro-Luque, Rolando Díaz-Caravantes, Kathleen R. Walker, Mary H. Hayden, Kacey C. Ernst

Dose of antivenom for the treatment of snakebite with neurotoxic envenoming: Evidence from a randomised controlled trial in Nepal

Emilie Alirol, Sanjib Kumar Sharma, Anup Ghimire, Antoine Poncet, Christophe Combescure, Chabilal Thapa, Vijaya Prasad Paudel, Kalidas Adhikary, Walter Robert Taylor, David Warrell, Ulrich Kuch, François Chappuis

The Biomphalaria glabrata DNA methylation machinery displays spatial tissue expression, is differentially active in distinct snail populations and is modulated by interactions with Schistosoma mansoni

Kathrin K. Geyer, Umar H. Niazi, David Duval, Céline Cosseau, Chad Tomlinson, Iain W. Chalmers, Martin T. Swain, David J. Cutress, Utibe Bickham-Wright, Sabrina E. Munshi, Christoph Grunau, Timothy P. Yoshino, Karl F. Hoffmann

Rapid deployment of a mobile biosafety level-3 laboratory in Sierra Leone during the 2014 Ebola virus epidemic

Yi Zhang, Yan Gong, Chengyu Wang, Wensen Liu, Zhongyi Wang, Zhiping Xia, Zhaoyang Bu, Huijun Lu, Yang Sun, Xiaoguang Zhang, Yuxi Cao, Fan Yang, Haoxiang Su, Yi Hu, Yongqiang Deng, Bo Zhou, Zongzheng Zhao, Yingying Fu, David Kargbo, Foday Dafae, Brima Kargbo, Alex Kanu, Linna Liu, Jun Qian, Zhendong Guo

Combined treatment of miltefosine and paromomycin delays the onset of experimental drug resistance in Leishmania infantum

Sarah Hendrickx, Magali Van den Kerkhof, Dorien Mabille, Paul Cos, Peter Delputte, Louis Maes, Guy Caljon

Strongyloides seroprevalence before and after an ivermectin mass drug administration in a remote Australian Aboriginal community

Therese M. Kearns, Bart J. Currie, Allen C. Cheng, James McCarthy, Jonathan R. Carapetis, Deborah C. Holt, Wendy Page, Jennifer Shield, Roslyn Gundjirryirr, Eddie Mulholland, Linda Ward, Ross M. Andrews

Structurally optimized analogs of the retrograde trafficking inhibitor Retro-2cycl limit Leishmania infections

Evan Craig, Charles-Eugene Huyghues-Despointes, Chun Yu, Emma L. Handy, Jason K. Sello, Peter E. Kima

Dissecting the human serum antibody response to secondary dengue virus infections

Bhumi Patel, Patti Longo, Michael J. Miley, Magelda Montoya, Eva Harris, Aravinda M. de Silva

Awareness and attitudes towards anthrax and meat consumption practices among affected communities in Zambia: A mixed methods approach

Doreen Chilolo Sitali, Chisoni Mumba, Eystein Skjerve, Oliver Mweemba, Consolata Kabonesa, Mwinyi Omary Mwinyi, Luke Nyakarahuka, John Bwalya Muma

A third generation vaccine for human visceral leishmaniasis and post kala azar dermal leishmaniasis: First-in-human trial of ChAd63-KH

Mohamed Osman, Anoop Mistry, Ada Keding, Rhian Gabe, Elizabeth Cook, Sarah Forrester, Rebecca Wiggins, Stefania Di Marco, Stefano Colloca, Loredana Siani, Riccardo Cortese, Deborah F. Smith, Toni Aebischer, Paul M. Kaye, Charles J. Lacey

Improving drug delivery strategies for lymphatic filariasis elimination in urban areas in Ghana

Nana-Kwadwo Biritwum, Bertha Garshong, Bright Alomatu, Dziedzom K. de Souza, Margaret Gyapong, Dominique Kyelem

Ileus in children presenting with diarrhea and severe acute malnutrition: A chart review

Mohammod Jobayer Chisti, Abu SMSB Shahid, K. M. Shahunja, Pradip Kumar Bardhan, Abu Syeed Golam Faruque, Lubaba Shahrin, Sumon Kumar Das, Dipesh Kumar Barua, Md Iqbal Hossain, Tahmeed Ahmed

The mitochondrial SIR2 related protein 2 (SIR2RP2) impacts Leishmania donovani growth and infectivity

Nimisha Mittal, Rohini Muthuswami, Rentala Madhubala

Time trend of neurocysticercosis in children with seizures in a tertiary hospital of western Nepal

Kalipatnam Seshagiri Rao, Sudhir Adhikari, Eva Gauchan, Brijesh Sathian, Ganesh B. K., Sahisnuta Basnet, Prabhat Kumar Tiwari, Namraj Bahadur, Rajnish Mishra

Functional and phenotypic evaluation of eosinophils from patients with the acute form of paracoccidioidomycosis

Fernanda Gambogi Braga, Luciana Pereira Ruas, Ricardo Mendes Pereira, Xinaida Taligare Lima, Edson Antunes, Ronei Luciano Mamoni, Maria Heloisa Souza Lima Blotta

An environmental assessment and risk map of Ascaris lumbricoides and Necator americanus distributions in Manufahi District, Timor-Leste

Rebecca Wardell, Archie C. A. Clements, Aparna Lal, David Summers, Stacey Llewellyn, Suzy J. Campbell, James McCarthy, Darren J. Gray, Susana V. Nery

Haemophilus ducreyi DNA is detectable on the skin of asymptomatic children, flies and fomites in villages of Papua New Guinea

Wendy Houinei, Charmie Godornes, August Kapa, Sascha Knauf, Eric Q. Mooring, Camila González-Beiras, Ronald Watup, Raymond Paru, Paul Advent, Sivauk Bieb, Sergi Sanz, Quique Bassat, Stanley M. Spinola, Sheila A. Lukehart, Oriol Mitjà

Migratory phase of Litomosoides sigmodontis filarial infective larvae is associated with pathology and transient increase of S100A9 expressing neutrophils in the lung

Gregory Karadjian, Frédéric Fercoq, Nicolas Pionnier, Nathaly Vallarino-Lhermitte, Emilie Lefoulon, Adélaïde Nieguitsila, Sabine Specht, Leo M. Carlin, Coralie Martin

Zika virus-like particle (VLP) based vaccine

Hélène Boigard, Alexandra Alimova, George R. Martin, Al Katz, Paul Gottlieb, Jose M. Galarza

Abnormal neurobehaviour and impaired memory function as a consequence of Toxocara canis- as well as Toxocara cati-induced neurotoxocarosis

Elisabeth Janecek, Patrick Waindok, Marion Bankstahl, Christina Strube

Brugia malayi microfilariae adhere to human vascular endothelial cells in a C3-dependent manner

Jan-Hendrik Schroeder, David McCarthy, Tadge Szestak, Darren A. Cook, Mark J. Taylor, Alister G. Craig, Charlotte Lawson, Rachel A. Lawrence

In a randomized trial, the live attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine TV003 is well-tolerated and highly immunogenic in subjects with flavivirus exposure prior to vaccination

Stephen S. Whitehead, Anna P. Durbin, Kristen K. Pierce, Dan Elwood, Benjamin D. McElvany, Ellen A. Fraser, Marya P. Carmolli, Cecilia M. Tibery, Noreen A. Hynes, Matthew Jo, Janece M. Lovchik, Catherine J. Larsson, Elena A. Doty, Dorothy M. Dickson, Catherine J. Luke, Kanta Subbarao, Sean A. Diehl, Beth D. Kirkpatrick

Associations between selective attention and soil-transmitted helminth infections, socioeconomic status, and physical fitness in disadvantaged children in Port Elizabeth, South Africa: An observational study

Stefanie Gall, Ivan Müller, Cheryl Walter, Harald Seelig, Liana Steenkamp, Uwe Pühse, Rosa du Randt, Danielle Smith, Larissa Adams, Siphesihle Nqweniso, Peiling Yap, Sebastian Ludyga, Peter Steinmann, Jürg Utzinger, Markus Gerber

Yaws resurgence in Bankim, Cameroon: The relative effectiveness of different means of detection in rural communities

Alphonse Um Boock, Paschal Kum Awah, Ferdinand Mou, Mark Nichter

A nonsense mutation in TLR5 is associated with survival and reduced IL-10 and TNF-α levels in human melioidosis

Panjaporn Chaichana, Narisara Chantratita, Florian Brod, Sirikamon Koosakulnirand, Kemajittra Jenjaroen, Suchintana Chumseng, Manutsanun Sumonwiriya, Mary N. Burtnick, Paul J. Brett, Prapit Teparrukkul, Direk Limmathurotsakul, Nicholas P. J. Day, Susanna J. Dunachie, T. Eoin West

The impact of migration and antimicrobial resistance on the transmission dynamics of typhoid fever in Kathmandu, Nepal: A mathematical modelling study

Neil J. Saad, Cayley C. Bowles, Bryan T. Grenfell, Buddha Basnyat, Amit Arjyal, Sabina Dongol, Abhilasha Karkey, Stephen Baker, Virginia E. Pitzer

The effect of current Schistosoma mansoni infection on the immunogenicity of a candidate TB vaccine, MVA85A, in BCG-vaccinated adolescents: An open-label trial

Anne Wajja, Dennison Kizito, Beatrice Nassanga, Angela Nalwoga, Joyce Kabagenyi, Simon Kimuda, Ronald Galiwango, Gertrude Mutonyi, Samantha Vermaak, Iman Satti, Jaco Verweij, Edridah Tukahebwa, Stephen Cose, Jonathan Levin, Pontiano Kaleebu, Alison M. Elliott, Helen McShane

A pilot study to delimit tsetse target populations in Zimbabwe

Gerald Chikowore, Ahmadou H. Dicko, Peter Chinwada, Moses Zimba, William Shereni, François Roger, Jérémy Bouyer, Laure Guerrini

Interruption of persistent exposure to leprosy combined or not with recent BCG vaccination enhances the response to Mycobacterium leprae specific antigens

Fernanda Marques de Carvalho, Luciana Silva Rodrigues, Nádia Cristina Duppre, Iris Maria Peixoto Alvim, Marcelo Ribeiro-Alves, Roberta Olmo Pinheiro, Euzenir Nunes Sarno, Maria Cristina Vidal Pessolani, Geraldo Moura Batista Pereira

Safety and immunogenicity of the Na-GST-1 hookworm vaccine in Brazilian and American adults

David J. Diemert, Janaína Freire, Vanderson Valente, Carlos Geraldo Fraga, Frederico Talles, Shannon Grahek, Doreen Campbell, Amar Jariwala, Maria Victoria Periago, Martin Enk, Maria Flávia Gazzinelli, Maria Elena Bottazzi, Robert Hamilton, Jill Brelsford, Anna Yakovleva, Guangzhao Li, Jin Peng, Rodrigo Correa-Oliveira, Peter Hotez, Jeffrey Bethony

The clinical features of 590 patients with brucellosis in Xinjiang, China with the emphasis on the treatment of complications

Bin Jia, Fengbo Zhang, Ying Lu, Wenbao Zhang, Jun Li, Yuexin Zhang, Jianbing Ding

External quality assessment study for ebolavirus PCR-diagnostic promotes international preparedness during the 2014 – 2016 Ebola outbreak in West Africa

Heinz Ellerbrok, Sonja Jacobsen, Pranav Patel, Toni Rieger, Markus Eickmann, Stephan Becker, Stephan Günther, Dhamari Naidoo, Livia Schrick, Kathrin Keeren, Angelina Targosz, Anette Teichmann, Pierre Formenty, Matthias Niedrig

Modulation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific humoral immune responses is associated with Strongyloides stercoralis co-infection

Rajamanickam Anuradha, Saravanan Munisankar, Yukti Bhootra, Chandrakumar Dolla, Paul Kumaran, Thomas B. Nutman, Subash Babu