Table of Contents

June 2011

Vector control has substantially reduced Chagas disease incidence. Yet, the enzootic nature of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission cycles makes disease elimination impossible. Sylvatic vectors often reinfest insecticide-treated households, and continuous surveillance is key to sustained control. Vector surveillance systems are much more sensitive when the community gets involved in reporting suspect insects; thus, fairly simple participatory strategies can critically enhance Chagas disease vector control (see Abad-Franch et al., doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0001207).

Image Credit: Antonieta Rojas de Arias (Centro para el Desarrollo de la Investigación Científica, Pan American Health Organization)


Mapping the Global Distribution of Trachoma: Why an Updated Atlas Is Needed

Jennifer L. Smith, Danny Haddad, Sarah Polack, Emma M. Harding-Esch, Pamela J. Hooper, David C. Mabey, Anthony W. Solomon, Simon Brooker

Why Is Plasmodium vivax a Neglected Tropical Disease?

Jane M. Carlton, Barbara J. Sina, John H. Adams


Research Articles

Rabies-Related Knowledge and Practices Among Persons At Risk of Bat Exposures in Thailand

Kis Robertson, Boonlert Lumlertdacha, Richard Franka, Brett Petersen, Saithip Bhengsri, Sununta Henchaichon, Leonard F. Peruski, Henry C. Baggett, Susan A. Maloney, Charles E. Rupprecht

SCYX-7158, an Orally-Active Benzoxaborole for the Treatment of Stage 2 Human African Trypanosomiasis

Robert T. Jacobs, Bakela Nare, Stephen A. Wring, Matthew D. Orr, Daitao Chen, Jessica M. Sligar, Matthew X. Jenks, Robert A. Noe, Tana S. Bowling, Luke T. Mercer, Cindy Rewerts, Eric Gaukel, Jennifer Owens, Robin Parham, Ryan Randolph, Beth Beaudet, Cyrus J. Bacchi, Nigel Yarlett, Jacob J. Plattner, Yvonne Freund, Charles Ding, Tsutomu Akama, Y.-K. Zhang, Reto Brun, Marcel Kaiser, Ivan Scandale, Robert Don

The Effect of Egg Embryonation on Field-Use of a Hookworm Benzimidazole-Sensitivity Egg Hatch Assay in Yunnan Province, People's Republic of China

Andrew C. Kotze, Peter Steinmann, Hui Zhou, Zun-Wei Du, Xiao-Nong Zhou

Selective Decrease of Components of the Creatine Kinase System and ATP Synthase Complex in Chronic Chagas Disease Cardiomyopathy

Priscila Camillo Teixeira, Ronaldo Honorato Barros Santos, Alfredo Inácio Fiorelli, Angelina Morand Bianchi Bilate, Luiz Alberto Benvenuti, Noedir Antonio Stolf, Jorge Kalil, Edecio Cunha-Neto

Developmental Transcriptomic Features of the Carcinogenic Liver Fluke, Clonorchis sinensis

Won Gi Yoo, Dae-Won Kim, Jung-Won Ju, Pyo Yun Cho, Tae Im Kim, Shin-Hyeong Cho, Sang-Haeng Choi, Hong-Seog Park, Tong-Soo Kim, Sung-Jong Hong

Evidence of Gene Conversion in Genes Encoding the Gal/GalNac Lectin Complex of Entamoeba

Gareth D. Weedall, James Sherrington, Steve Paterson, Neil Hall

The Geographic Distribution of Loa loa in Africa: Results of Large-Scale Implementation of the Rapid Assessment Procedure for Loiasis (RAPLOA)

Honorat Gustave Marie Zouré, Samuel Wanji, Mounkaïla Noma, Uche Veronica Amazigo, Peter J. Diggle, Afework Hailemariam Tekle, Jan H. F. Remme

Synergism between Prior Anisakis simplex Infections and Intake of NSAIDs, on the Risk of Upper Digestive Bleeding: A Case-Control Study

Florencio M. Ubeira, Ana M. Anadón, Angel Salgado, Alfonso Carvajal, Sara Ortega, Carmelo Aguirre, María José López-Goikoetxea, Luisa Ibanez, Adolfo Figueiras

Parasitic Loads in Tissues of Mice Infected with Trypanosoma cruzi and Treated with AmBisome

Sabrina Cencig, Nicolas Coltel, Carine Truyens, Yves Carlier

Contrasting Population Structures of Two Vectors of African Trypanosomoses in Burkina Faso: Consequences for Control

Naférima Koné, Jérémy Bouyer, Sophie Ravel, Marc J. B. Vreysen, Kouadjo T. Domagni, Sandrine Causse, Philippe Solano, Thierry de Meeûs

Evidence for a Peak Shift in a Humoral Response to Helminths: Age Profiles of IgE in the Shuar of Ecuador, the Tsimane of Bolivia, and the U.S. NHANES

Aaron D. Blackwell, Michael D. Gurven, Lawrence S. Sugiyama, Felicia C. Madimenos, Melissa A. Liebert, Melanie A. Martin, Hillard S. Kaplan, J. Josh Snodgrass

Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) for Lineage Assignment and High Resolution Diversity Studies in Trypanosoma cruzi

Matthew Yeo, Isabel L. Mauricio, Louisa A. Messenger, Michael D. Lewis, Martin S. Llewellyn, Nidia Acosta, Tapan Bhattacharyya, Patricio Diosque, Hernan J. Carrasco, Michael A. Miles

The Influence of Reduced Susceptibility to Fluoroquinolones in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi on the Clinical Response to Ofloxacin Therapy

Christopher M. Parry, Ha Vinh, Nguyen Tran Chinh, John Wain, James I. Campbell, Tran Tinh Hien, Jeremy J. Farrar, Stephen Baker

Age-Specificity of Clinical Dengue during Primary and Secondary Infections

Khoa T. D. Thai, Hiroshi Nishiura, Phuong Lan Hoang, Nga Thanh Thi Tran, Giao Trong Phan, Hung Quoc Le, Binh Quang Tran, Nam Van Nguyen, Peter J. de Vries

Health Services for Buruli Ulcer Control: Lessons from a Field Study in Ghana

Mercy M. Ackumey, Cynthia Kwakye-Maclean, Edwin O. Ampadu, Don de Savigny, Mitchell G. Weiss

In-Depth Analysis of the Antibody Response of Individuals Exposed to Primary Dengue Virus Infection

Ruklanthi de Alwis, Martina Beltramello, William B. Messer, Soila Sukupolvi-Petty, Wahala M. P. B. Wahala, Annette Kraus, Nicholas P. Olivarez, Quang Pham, James Brian, Wen-Yang Tsai, Wei-Kung Wang, Scott Halstead, Srisakul Kliks, Michael S. Diamond, Ralph Baric, Antonio Lanzavecchia, Federica Sallusto, Aravinda M. de Silva

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Community Participation in Chagas Disease Vector Surveillance: Systematic Review

Fernando Abad-Franch, M. Celeste Vega, Miriam S. Rolón, Walter S. Santos, Antonieta Rojas de Arias

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Bruno Levecke, Jerzy M. Behnke, Sitara S. R. Ajjampur, Marco Albonico, Shaali M. Ame, Johannes Charlier, Stefan M. Geiger, Nguyen T. V. Hoa, Romuald I. Kamwa Ngassam, Andrew C. Kotze, James S. McCarthy, Antonio Montresor, Maria V. Periago, Sheela Roy, Louis-Albert Tchuem Tchuenté, D. T. C. Thach, Jozef Vercruysse

TLR1/2 Activation during Heterologous Prime-Boost Vaccination (DNA-MVA) Enhances CD8+ T Cell Responses Providing Protection against Leishmania (Viannia)

Asha Jayakumar, Tiago M. Castilho, Esther Park, Karen Goldsmith-Pestana, Jenefer M. Blackwell, Diane McMahon-Pratt

Coma Associated with Microscopy-Diagnosed Plasmodium vivax: A Prospective Study in Papua, Indonesia

Daniel A. Lampah, Tsin W. Yeo, Setiawan O. Hardianto, Emiliana Tjitra, Enny Kenangalem, Paulus Sugiarto, Ric N. Price, Nicholas M. Anstey

Potential Drug Development Candidates for Human Soil-Transmitted Helminthiases

Piero Olliaro, Jürg Seiler, Annette Kuesel, John Horton, Jeffrey N. Clark, Robert Don, Jennifer Keiser

Predictors of Visceral Leishmaniasis Relapse in HIV-Infected Patients: A Systematic Review

Gláucia F. Cota, Marcos R. de Sousa, Ana Rabello

Comparative Microsatellite Typing of New World Leishmania infantum Reveals Low Heterogeneity among Populations and Its Recent Old World Origin

Katrin Kuhls, Mohammad Zahangir Alam, Elisa Cupolillo, Gabriel Eduardo M. Ferreira, Isabel L. Mauricio, Rolando Oddone, M. Dora Feliciangeli, Thierry Wirth, Michael A. Miles, Gabriele Schönian

Effects of Chronic Ascariasis and Trichuriasis on Cytokine Production and Gene Expression in Human Blood: A Cross-Sectional Study

Miguel Reina Ortiz, Fernanda Schreiber, Susana Benitez, Nely Broncano, Martha E. Chico, Maritza Vaca, Neal Alexander, David J. Lewis, Gordon Dougan, Philip J. Cooper

Protection against Diarrhea Associated with Giardia intestinalis Is Lost with Multi-Nutrient Supplementation: A Study in Tanzanian Children

Jacobien Veenemans, Theo Mank, Maarten Ottenhof, Amrish Baidjoe, Erasto V. Mbugi, Ayse Y. Demir, Jos P. M. Wielders, Huub F. J. Savelkoul, Hans Verhoef

Increased Vascularity in Cervicovaginal Mucosa with Schistosoma haematobium Infection

Peter Mark Jourdan, Borghild Roald, Gabriele Poggensee, Svein Gunnar Gundersen, Eyrun Floerecke Kjetland

Genetic Control of Resistance to Trypanosoma brucei brucei Infection in Mice

Matyáš Šíma, Helena Havelková, Lei Quan, Milena Svobodová, Taťána Jarošíková, Jarmila Vojtíšková, Alphons P. M. Stassen, Peter Demant, Marie Lipoldová

Serologic Cross-Reactivity of Human IgM and IgG Antibodies to Five Species of Ebola Virus

Adam MacNeil, Zachary Reed, Pierre E. Rollin

RNAi Effector Diversity in Nematodes

Johnathan J. Dalzell, Paul McVeigh, Neil D. Warnock, Makedonka Mitreva, David McK. Bird, Pierre Abad, Colin C. Fleming, Tim A. Day, Angela Mousley, Nikki J. Marks, Aaron G. Maule

Differential Expression of Chemokine and Matrix Re-Modelling Genes Is Associated with Contrasting Schistosome-Induced Hepatopathology in Murine Models

Carly R. Perry, Melissa L. Burke, Deborah J. Stenzel, Donald P. McManus, Grant A. Ramm, Geoffrey N. Gobert

Burden of Podoconiosis in Poor Rural Communities in Gulliso woreda, West Ethiopia

Getahun Alemu, Fasil Tekola Ayele, Takele Daniel, Christel Ahrens, Gail Davey

A Cross-Sectional Study of People with Epilepsy and Neurocysticercosis in Tanzania: Clinical Characteristics and Diagnostic Approaches

Joachim Blocher, Erich Schmutzhard, Patricia P. Wilkins, Paige N. Gupton, Matthias Schaffert, Herbert Auer, Thaddaeus Gotwald, William Matuja, Andrea S. Winkler

Polyandry Is a Common Event in Wild Populations of the Tsetse Fly Glossina fuscipes fuscipes and May Impact Population Reduction Measures

Angelica Bonomi, Federico Bassetti, Paolo Gabrieli, Jon Beadell, Marco Falchetto, Francesca Scolari, Ludvik M. Gomulski, Eugenio Regazzini, Johnson O. Ouma, Adalgisa Caccone, Loyce M. Okedi, Geoffrey M. Attardo, Carmela R. Guglielmino, Serap Aksoy, Anna R. Malacrida

Interferon-γ and Proliferation Responses to Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhi Proteins in Patients with S. Typhi Bacteremia in Dhaka, Bangladesh

Alaullah Sheikh, Farhana Khanam, Md. Abu Sayeed, Taibur Rahman, Marcin Pacek, Yanhui Hu, Andrea Rollins, Md. Saruar Bhuiyan, Sean Rollins, Anuj Kalsy, Mohammad Arifuzzaman, Daniel T. Leung, David A. Sarracino, Bryan Krastins, Richelle C. Charles, Regina C. LaRocque, Alejandro Cravioto, Stephen B. Calderwood, W. Abdullah Brooks, Jason B. Harris, Joshua LaBaer, Firdausi Qadri, Edward T. Ryan

Population Genetics of Trypanosoma evansi from Camel in the Sudan

Bashir Salim, Thierry de Meeûs, Mohammed A. Bakheit, Joseph Kamau, Ichiro Nakamura, Chihiro Sugimoto

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Mapping Helminth Co-Infection and Co-Intensity: Geostatistical Prediction in Ghana

Ricardo J. Soares Magalhães, Nana-Kwadwo Biritwum, John O. Gyapong, Simon Brooker, Yaobi Zhang, Lynsey Blair, Alan Fenwick, Archie C. A. Clements