Skip to main content
  • Loading metrics

Neglected Tropical Diseases among the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN): Overview and Update

  • Peter J. Hotez,

    Affiliations Sabin Vaccine Institute and Texas Children’s Hospital Center for Vaccine Development, Departments of Pediatrics and Molecular Virology and Microbiology, National School of Tropical Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, United States of America, Department of Biology, Baylor University, Waco, Texas, United States of America, James A. Baker III Institute for Public Policy, Rice University, Houston, Texas, United States of America

  • Maria Elena Bottazzi,

    Affiliations Sabin Vaccine Institute and Texas Children’s Hospital Center for Vaccine Development, Departments of Pediatrics and Molecular Virology and Microbiology, National School of Tropical Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, United States of America, Department of Biology, Baylor University, Waco, Texas, United States of America

  • Ulrich Strych,

    Affiliation Sabin Vaccine Institute and Texas Children’s Hospital Center for Vaccine Development, Departments of Pediatrics and Molecular Virology and Microbiology, National School of Tropical Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, United States of America

  • Li-Yen Chang,

    Affiliation Tropical Infectious Diseases Research and Education Centre, Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

  • Yvonne A. L. Lim,

    Affiliation Department of Parasitology, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

  • Maureen M. Goodenow , (MMG); (SA)

    Affiliation Department of Pathology, Immunology, and Laboratory Medicine, University of Florida, College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America

  • Sazaly AbuBakar (MMG); (SA)

    Affiliation Tropical Infectious Diseases Research and Education Centre, Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia


The ten member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) constitute an economic powerhouse, yet these countries also harbor a mostly hidden burden of poverty and neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Almost 200 million people live in extreme poverty in ASEAN countries, mostly in the low or lower middle-income countries of Indonesia, the Philippines, Myanmar, Viet Nam, and Cambodia, and many of them are affected by at least one NTD. However, NTDs are prevalent even among upper middle-income ASEAN countries such as Malaysia and Thailand, especially among the indigenous populations. The three major intestinal helminth infections are the most common NTDs; each helminthiasis is associated with approximately 100 million infections in the region. In addition, more than 10 million people suffer from either liver or intestinal fluke infections, as well as schistosomiasis and lymphatic filariasis (LF). Intestinal protozoan infections are widespread, while leishmaniasis has emerged in Thailand, and zoonotic malaria (Plasmodium knowlesi infection) causes severe morbidity in Malaysia. Melioidosis has emerged as an important bacterial NTD, as have selected rickettsial infections, and leptospirosis. Leprosy, yaws, and trachoma are still endemic in focal areas. Almost 70 million cases of dengue fever occur annually in ASEAN countries, such that this arboviral infection is now one of the most common and economically important NTDs in the region. A number of other arboviral and zoonotic viral infections have also emerged, including Japanese encephalitis; tick-borne viral infections; Nipah virus, a zoonosis present in fruit bats; and enterovirus 71 infection. There are urgent needs to expand surveillance activities in ASEAN countries, as well as to ensure mass drug administration is provided to populations at risk for intestinal helminth and fluke infections, LF, trachoma, and yaws. An ASEAN Network for Drugs, Diagnostics, Vaccines, and Traditional Medicines Innovation provides a policy framework for the development of new control and elimination tools. Together with prominent research institutions and universities, the World Health Organization (WHO), and its regional offices, these organizations could implement important public health improvements through NTD control and elimination in the coming decade.


ASEAN was founded in 1967 in order to promote economic and cultural development; to promote trade, agricultural, industrial, and scientific collaboration; and to promote peace and stability in the region [1]. Today, ten member states—Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao People’s Democratic Republic (PDR), Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Viet Nam—comprise ASEAN (Fig 1) and, together, include a population of approximately 636 million people or almost 10% of the global population (Table 1) [2,3]. The largest number of people live in Indonesia (>250 million people), followed by the Philippines and Viet Nam (with approximately 107 and 93 million people, respectively) [2].

Fig 1. The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).

Image Credit: Wikimedia contributor Addicted04.

The countries that comprise ASEAN have experienced impressive economic growth in recent years. According to the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the six major ASEAN economies—Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Viet Nam—have averaged between 4.6% and 7.1% economic growth since 2011 (and as projected into 2015) [4]. However, such rapid growth has also left a substantial fraction of people economically marginalized. Overall, almost 200 million people in ASEAN countries, or roughly 30% of the population, live in extreme poverty, i.e., on less than US$2 per day, or below their national poverty lines [57]. Together, Indonesia and the Philippines account for about three-quarters of ASEAN’s poor, although even middle-income nations, such as Malaysia and Thailand, have hundreds of thousands of economically disadvantaged people.

Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) mostly affect people who live in extreme poverty; these diseases are also known to promote poverty even further because of their chronic and debilitating effects [8,9]. Indeed, a substantial portion of the “bottom 200 million” people of the Southeast Asian region suffers from more than one NTD. While the NTDs of Southeast Asia were reviewed in 2010 [10,11], here we summarize some of the revised estimates published over the last four years for the 14 of 17 NTDs (as defined by WHO) endemic among the countries of ASEAN (Box 1). These estimates are based on publicly-available and updated WHO Preventive Chemotherapy and Transmission (PCT) data, supplemented with additional data, in order to provide an overview and suggest policy recommendations for the region.

Box 1. NTDs affecting ASEAN countries from World Health Organization’s List of 17 Neglected Tropical Diseases


  • Cysticercosis/Taeniasis*
  • Dracunculiasis (guinea-worm disease)
  • Echinococcosis*
  • Foodborne trematodiases*
  • Lymphatic filariasis*
  • Onchocerciasis (river blindness)
  • Schistosomiasis*
  • Soil-transmitted helminthiases*


  • Chagas disease
  • Human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness)
  • Leishmaniasis*


  • Buruli ulcer*
  • Leprosy (Hansen’s disease)*
  • Trachoma*
  • Yaws*


  • Dengue/Severe dengue*
  • Rabies*

*Major NTDs affecting ASEAN Countries

Additional Major NTDs Affecting ASEAN Countries

Strongyloidiasis and Toxocariasis

Intestinal Protozoan Infections

Malaria caused by Plasmodium knowlesi


Japanese Encephalitis

Nipah Virus Infection

Enterovirus 71

(From, accessed July 20, 2014)

Neglected Helminth Infections

New studies by Pullan et al. [12] on soil-transmitted helminth infections determined that 126.7 million people in Southeast Asia are infected with Ascaris roundworms, while 115.3 million are infected with Trichuris whipworms, and 77.0 million have hookworm infections, including a high proportion of cases with Ancylostoma ceylanicum infections, a unique zoonotic hookworm infection found in ASEAN countries, especially Malaysia, Thailand, Cambodia, and Lao PDR [13,14]. Thus, approximately one-half of the people of Southeast Asia living in poverty have one or more soil-transmitted helminth infection. Indigenous populations, such as the Orang Asli communities in peninsular Malaysia, are disproportionately affected, with high levels of community prevalence and intensities [15]. Hookworm infections in the region have long been known as a leading cause of anemia [1618], and, moreover, helminthic infections with Trichuris trichiura or Ascaris lumbricoides in the region are also statistically associated with anemia and iron deficiency anemia, leading to incidences of low-birth-weight infants and inadequate growth and mental development in children, as well as high maternal mortality and low productivity in adults [8]. Two additional soil-transmitted helminth infections—strongyloidiasis and toxocariasis—are common among indigenous and other populations living in poverty [19,20] and are probably widespread in the region, but there are no published data on their overall prevalence. According to WHO and its PCT database, almost 120 million pre-school- and school-aged children require periodic deworming for soil-transmitted helminth infections in ASEAN, which accounts for more than 13% of the global population eligible for deworming (Table 2) [21,22]. Similarly, ASEAN countries account for more than 13% of the global population that require mass treatment for lymphatic filariasis (LF) [23,24], or more than 15 million people if we extrapolate from the widely used number of 120 million people globally living with LF [25]. It is very encouraging, though, that through the Global Program to Eliminate LF (GPELF), launched in 2000, there now is a clear path to the elimination of LF. Within ASEAN, Viet Nam, Cambodia, and Malaysia have already achieved their targets [26,27], with the other member states making excellent progress [27].

Table 2. NTDs of the ASEAN Countries according to WHO PCT data and other sources.

Among the platyhelminth infections, Furst et al. [28] estimate that 9.3 million people suffer from bile duct liver fluke infections in the region (39% of the global number of cases), including 8.03 million cases of opisthorchiasis, mostly in Lao PDR and Thailand, and 1.25 million cases of clonorchiasis in Viet Nam. Approximately 3.4 million people live with intestinal flukes in the Philippines and Thailand, which represents more than half the global disease burden [28]. It is worth emphasizing that the full effect of these fluke infections may go beyond the primary disease symptoms. For example, there is some evidence that fluke infections, which constitute a strong risk factor for bile duct cancer (cholangiocarcinoma) [29], have the greatest incidence rates in Thailand (85/100,000 versus <0.5/100,000 in the Western world) [2931]. In addition, according to WHO, in the Philippines in 2013, about 500,000 school-aged children required preventive chemotherapy and over 865,000 people were treated for schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma japonicum, with a prevalence as high as 65% in some communities [3234]. In addition, WHO reports, over 150,000 people were treated in Cambodia and Lao PDR for what were likely S. mekongi infections, and a little over 10,000 were treated in Indonesia for infections with, likely, S. japonicum [33]. Another parasite involving gastropod intermediate hosts in its life cycle and endemic to the region is Angiostrongylus, which causes eosinophilic meningitis, eosinophilic meningoencephalitis, and, rarely, ocular disease during occasional outbreaks in the region, particularly in Thailand. Due do difficulties in diagnosis of the actual parasite, the true number of infections in the past might be underestimated [35]. Taeniasis and cysticercosis, common cestode diseases [36,37], and possibly echinococcosis [38], are likewise found in Southeast Asia, but there is a dearth of information regarding their prevalence and disease burden.

Neglected Protozoan Infections

None of the protozoan kinetoplastid infections on WHO’s list of 17 NTDs are considered highly endemic to Southeast Asia. However, visceral leishmaniasis, caused by Leishmania siamensis, has recently emerged in southern Thailand [39], with the first case of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Thailand reported in 2012 [40]. Intestinal protozoan infections are widespread among Southeast Asia’s most impoverished populations, including indigenous populations [41]. The major intestinal protozoan infections are giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis, which have been linked to malnutrition or impaired growth in Southeast Asia [42,43], and Blastocystis infection [44]. In recent reports from the region, B. hominis, in particular, has gained increased attention for causing opportunistic infections in individuals immunocompromised by cancer or HIV-1 infection [4548]. The intestinal protozoa have emerged as important waterborne parasites in Southeast Asia [49,50]. Toxoplasmosis is also common among the Orang Asli indigenous communities of Malaysia [51], and presumably other indigenous and impoverished populations across the region, although no overall prevalence estimates for either the intestinal protozoan infections or toxoplasmosis are published.

While not ordinarily classified as an NTD, Southeast Asia faces a serious disease burden from malaria, with both Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax found in every ASEAN country [52]. An estimated 7.5 million infections occur in ASEAN countries [53,54]. P. knowlesi has emerged as the fifth (and zoonotic) human malaria species, with a large human focus first reported in 2004 from Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo, and, subsequently, elsewhere in Peninsular Malaysia and Southeast Asia (except Lao PDR) [5557]. Today, P. knowlesi malaria is found in wild monkey populations, where it is the most common cause of clinical and severe malaria in Malaysia [56]. There are no overall published prevalence estimates for this type of malaria in Southeast Asia, but by defining actual and potential monkey reservoirs, Moyes et al. [56] recently provided innovative maps of transmission areas, and defined areas of intense transmission to Malaysia and other areas.

Neglected Bacterial Infections

Tuberculosis (TB) is also not classified as an NTD, although WHO has determined that a high disease burden of TB occurs in six ASEAN countries—Cambodia, Indonesia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Thailand, and Viet Nam [58]. Cases of extremely drug-resistant TB have occurred in Thailand and Malaysia [58,59]. Leprosy and trachoma are the only major bacterial NTDs from WHO’s list that are found commonly in Southeast Asia. Buruli ulcer and yaws also occur in Southeast Asia, but are not as widely prevalent as in sub-Saharan Africa and Australia [10,60,61], although yaws is still endemic in parts of Indonesia [61]. WHO estimates that ASEAN countries account for approximately 10% of the world’s registered leprosy cases, with three-quarters of the cases found in Indonesia [62]. Trachoma is still considered endemic only in Cambodia and Lao PDR, and surveillance for elimination is underway in Viet Nam [63]. A recent analysis of febrile illnesses in the Mekong region identified scrub typhus (Orientia tsutsugamushi), murine typhus (Rickettsia typhi), and members of the spotted fever group rickettsiae as important etiologies, as are leptospirosis (Leptospira spp.), salmonellosis (Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and Paratyphi), and melioidosis (Burkholderia pseudomallei) [64,65]. Indeed, melioidosis has emerged as a major neglected bacterial infection and serious cause of gram-negative sepsis and bacteremic pneumonia in Southeast Asia, but especially in northern Thailand [6668]. While the number of cases may have increased in Indonesia following the 2004 Asian tsunami [66], there are no recent published incidence or disease burden estimates. Leptospirosis, on the other hand, is an emerging zoonotic bacterial infection causing high numbers of infections with death following natural disasters, especially flooding in densely populated urban areas [69,70], such as in the aftermath of Typhoon Ondoy in the Philippines in 2009 [71]. Leptospirosis is also on the rise in Malaysia, with a markedly increased number of deaths in more recently reported incidents [72].

Neglected Viral Infections

Dengue (and other arboviral infections) and rabies are the two major viral NTDs. New estimates by Bhatt et al. [73] indicate that approximately 68 million apparent and inapparent dengue infections occur annually in the countries of ASEAN, accounting for more than 17% of the global disease burden. Moreover, dengue represents a major economic threat, with some estimates indicating that the disease results in almost US$1 billion in annual economic losses for the region [74]. Other important arboviral infections include Japanese encephalitis (JE), West Nile virus, and chikungunya [75,76]. Less described, but potentially endemic, infections include those caused by Zika virus, Tembusu virus, and Usutu virus [77,78]. Tick-borne diseases, such as tick-borne encephalitis and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, are also potentially emerging neglected viral diseases, particularly amongst the economically marginalized population. There is a dearth of published studies describing the incidence and prevalence of tick-borne diseases in countries of ASEAN, although these diseases are endemic in neighboring countries such as Japan and China [79,80]. Still, other key emerging viral infections include Nipah virus, a zoonosis from fruit bats, which was transmitted to pigs and humans [81], or enterovirus 71, an important cause of Hand-Foot-and-Mouth disease and meningoencephalitis in children [82]. There is a need for more active surveillance of these diseases and estimates of incidence and disease burden for the Southeast Asian region. Currently, all of the JE affected countries of Southeast Asia, except for Indonesia, maintain sentinel, subnational, or national surveillance programs, while Cambodia, Thailand, and Viet Nam implement programs of vaccination [83]. The global burden of disease of four arbovirus infections, including JE and chikungunya, was recently reported, although the burden affecting the Southeast Asian region as a whole was not specified [84]. Finally, canine rabies represents an important public health threat to the region. While canine rabies has been practically eliminated in Singapore and Malaysia [85], the remainder of the region, especially the poorest areas of countries such as Indonesia or the Philippines, continue to report cases [86].

Establishing a Public Policy and Framework for the Region

A summary of the number of cases of the major NTDs affecting ASEAN is shown in Table 3. The major soil-transmitted helminth infections cause the most frequent NTDs, followed by dengue, LF, liver/lung fluke infections, malaria, schistosomiasis, and leprosy. However, there is an extreme dearth of information for the intestinal protozoan and other infections, zoonotic malaria from P. knowlesi, toxoplasmosis, all of the bacterial NTDs other than leprosy, and all of the viral NTDs other than dengue fever. Only fragmentary information is available from local settings, with no national and/or regional burdens comprehensively assessed. This calls for urgent action to conduct active surveillance for these NTDs and to define the full extent of NTD-caused illnesses within the respective countries and collectively within the region. Efforts incorporating advanced tools, such as remote sensing or geographic information systems, as was initiated for the soil-transmitted helminth infections [87], should be generally implemented. In addition, there is a need to intensify and improve assessments of the economic impact of the NTDs among ASEAN countries, especially amongst the economically marginalized populations. This concerted effort will equip the region with evidence-based information, which is pertinent, especially as ASEAN moves closer towards her aspiration to become a single entity as the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) in 2015. Educating cabinet officials and parliamentarians in these nations on how NTDs are trapping 200 million Southeast Asians in poverty, while exercising a “whole of government” approach, could create opportunities for advocacy to bring in new and additional resources to fight these diseases.

Table 3. Summary of the major NTDs and malaria in the ASEAN countries.

Through integrated mass drug administration, there are needs to expand coverage for the soil-transmitted helminth infections, LF, schistosomiasis, and trachoma. Currently, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) through its Neglected Diseases Program is supporting integrated mass drug administration for these diseases in the nations of Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, the Philippines, and Viet Nam [88]. Given how widespread the intestinal protozoa are in ASEAN, it might be worthwhile investigating whether nitazoxanide is effective and safe if added to current drug regimens [89,90]. Together with intersectoral collaboration that includes water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) [91], there may be opportunities for multilateral collaboration on the control and elimination of these diseases. Such scientific cooperation will be particularly important for the vector-borne NTDs, including the arboviruses and other emerging viral infections, which are transmitted across national borders and are not currently amenable to mass drug administration (MDA) approaches.

For many of the NTDs affecting the region though, new drugs, diagnostics, and vaccines are needed. Therefore, there is dire urgency to identify mechanisms for support of the development of such products even though return on investment may be through poverty reductions rather than more traditional mechanisms. Meaningful outcomes can be generated with active involvement of universities and biotechnology enterprises, which have the capabilities for translational research and development, especially in some of the major research institutes in Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, and elsewhere, as well as through developing country vaccine manufacturers in Thailand, Indonesia, and Viet Nam. These activities must include efforts to engage innovative financing schemes through organizations such as the Asian Development Bank or the Malaysian Investment Development Authority (MIDA), among others. Great benefits have been achieved in the past through collaborative efforts such as the Regional Network on Asian Schistosomiasis and Other Important Zoonosis (RNAS+), founded in 1998. By strengthening the collaboration between control and research authorities in the region (and including China), RNAS+ now provides advice on regional strategies on the mobilization of resources with respect to multinational projects on several parasitic diseases in Southeast Asia, primarily schistosomiasis but also other helminth infections [92,93]. A new, promising development is the establishment of the ASEAN Network for Drugs, Diagnostics, Vaccines, and Traditional Medicines Innovation (ASEAN-NDI) [94], founded in 2009 to parallel the African Network for Drugs and Diagnostics Innovation (ANDI), a network championed by the World Health Organization Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (WHO-TDR) [95]. These initiatives helped to implement the idea of establishing regional innovation networks. Activities with the network include the assessment of the product research and development (R&D) landscape for the triple burden of disease in the region: infectious tropical diseases, non-communicable diseases, and preventable diseases due to accidents and traumas. The results of the mapping exercise indicated a diverse spectrum of capacity for ASEAN member states to pursue R&D on drugs, diagnostics, vaccines, and traditional medicine [96]. Likewise, the geographically broader Asia Pacific NTD Initiative [97] in support of WHO’s Regional Strategic Plan for Integrated NTD Control in the South-East Asia Region [98] and WHO’s Regional Action Plan for Neglected Tropical Diseases in the Western Pacific [99] assists in the formulation of national NTD plans of action, monitoring programs, and the mobilization of internal and external funds. The stated goal of the five-year (2012–2016) Asia Pacific NTD Initiative is to reduce suffering and increase productivity through minimal investments in capacity-building, health education, integrated planning, and technical assistance to overcome the existing logistical bottlenecks. While regional governments and other donors have already contributed nearly 50% of the total budget, the initiative still reports a US$121 million dollar funding gap. Nonetheless, various countries have already started to see benefits from this initiative. For instance, the WHO target of deworming at least 75% of school-age children has been reached in Cambodia, Lao PDR, and Viet Nam [100]. The continued funding of such innovative partnerships, including setting aside a specific percentage of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for the purpose, will be essential for future successes. Finally, science diplomacy is potentially also in the remit of ASEAN, and this area could be repurposed to focus on codevelopment of vaccines, drugs, and diagnostics for NTDs now affecting Southeast Asia [66].

Key Learning Points

  • Almost 200 million people live in extreme poverty in the ten ASEAN countries.
  • Helminth infections are the most common NTD, especially the intestinal helminthiases and fluke infections.
  • Intestinal protozoan infections are widespread and Plasmodium knowlesi infection is an important cause of severe malaria.
  • Vector-borne bacterial and viral infections are major causes of morbidity and mortality in the region, as are Nipah virus and enterovirus 71 infection.
  • An ASEAN Network for Drugs, Diagnostics, Vaccines, and Traditional Medicines Innovation (ASEAN-NDI) provides a policy framework for the development of new control and elimination tools.

Top Five Papers

  1. Ngui R, Lim YA, Chong Kin L, Sek Chuen C, Jaffar S. Association between anaemia, iron deficiency anaemia, neglected parasitic infections and socioeconomic factors in rural children of West Malaysia. PLoS neglected tropical diseases. 2012;6(3):e1550.
  2. Furst T, Keiser J, Utzinger J. Global burden of human food-borne trematodiasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet Infectious diseases. 2012;12(3):210–21.
  3. Moyes CL, Henry AJ, Golding N, Huang Z, Singh B, Baird JK, et al. Defining the geographical range of the Plasmodium knowlesi reservoir. PLoS neglected tropical diseases. 2014;8(3):e2780.
  4. Limmathurotsakul D, Dance DA, Wuthiekanun V, Kaestli M, Mayo M, Warner J, et al. Systematic review and consensus guidelines for environmental sampling of Burkholderia pseudomallei. PLoS neglected tropical diseases. 2013;7(3):e2105.
  5. Shepard DS, Undurraga EA, Halasa YA. Economic and disease burden of dengue in Southeast Asia. PLoS neglected tropical diseases. 2013;7(2):e2055.


  1. 1. ASEAN Secretariat hwao. (2014) Association of Southeast Asian Nations. Accessed September 11, 2014.
  2. 2. Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook. Accessed June 15, 2014.
  3. 3. Worldometers. Current World Population. Accessed September 11, 2014.
  4. 4. OECD. ASEAN countries returning to pre-crisis growth. Accessed June 27, 2014.
  5. 5. The World Bank Group. (2014) Poverty headcount ratio at $1.25 a day (PPP) (% of population). Accessed June 15, 2014.
  6. 6. Group TWB. (2014) Poverty headcount at $2 a day (PPP) (% of population). Accessed September 11, 2014.
  7. 7. United Nations. (2014) Resources for Speakers on Global Issues, Hunger, Vital Statistics. Accessed June 27, 2014.
  8. 8. Ngui R, Lim YA, Chong Kin L, Sek Chuen C, Jaffar S (2012) Association between anaemia, iron deficiency anaemia, neglected parasitic infections and socioeconomic factors in rural children of West Malaysia. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6: e1550. pmid:22413027
  9. 9. Ngui R, Ishak S, Chuen CS, Mahmud R, Lim YA (2011) Prevalence and risk factors of intestinal parasitism in rural and remote West Malaysia. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5: e974. pmid:21390157
  10. 10. Narain JP, Dash AP, Parnell B, Bhattacharya SK, Barua S, Bhatia R, et al. (2010) Elimination of neglected tropical diseases in the South-East Asia Region of the World Health Organization. Bull World Health Organ 88: 206–210. pmid:20428388
  11. 11. Hotez PJ, Ehrenberg JP (2010) Escalating the global fight against neglected tropical diseases through interventions in the Asia Pacific region. Adv Parasitol 72: 31–53. pmid:20624527
  12. 12. Pullan RL, Smith JL, Jasrasaria R, Brooker SJ (2014) Global numbers of infection and disease burden of soil transmitted helminth infections in 2010. Parasit Vectors 7: 37. pmid:24447578
  13. 13. Ngui R, Ching LS, Kai TT, Roslan MA, Lim YA (2012) Molecular identification of human hookworm infections in economically disadvantaged communities in Peninsular Malaysia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 86: 837–842. pmid:22556084
  14. 14. Ngui R, Lim YA, Traub R, Mahmud R, Mistam MS (2012) Epidemiological and genetic data supporting the transmission of Ancylostoma ceylanicum among human and domestic animals. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6: e1522. pmid:22347515
  15. 15. Lim YA, Romano N, Colin N, Chow SC, Smith HV (2009) Intestinal parasitic infections amongst Orang Asli (indigenous) in Malaysia: has socioeconomic development alleviated the problem? Trop Biomed 26: 110–122. pmid:19901897
  16. 16. Ezeamama AE, Friedman JF, Acosta LP, Bellinger DC, Langdon GC, Manalo DL, et al. (2005) Helminth infection and cognitive impairment among Filipino children. Am J Trop Med Hyg 72: 540–548. pmid:15891127
  17. 17. Ezeamama AE, Friedman JF, Olveda RM, Acosta LP, Kurtis JD, Mor V, et al. (2005) Functional significance of low-intensity polyparasite helminth infections in anemia. J Infect Dis 192: 2160–2170. pmid:16288383
  18. 18. Sakti H, Nokes C, Hertanto WS, Hendratno S, Hall A, Bundy DA, et al. (1999) Evidence for an association between hookworm infection and cognitive function in Indonesian school children. Trop Med Int Health 4: 322–334. pmid:10402967
  19. 19. Ahmad AF, Hadip F, Ngui R, Lim YA, Mahmud R (2013) Serological and molecular detection of Strongyloides stercoralis infection among an Orang Asli community in Malaysia. Parasitol Res 112: 2811–2816. pmid:23666229
  20. 20. Romano N, Nor Azah MO, Rahmah N, Lim YA, Rohela M (2010) Seroprevalence of toxocariasis among Orang Asli (Indigenous people) in Malaysia using two immunoassays. Trop Biomed 27: 585–594. pmid:21399601
  21. 21. World Health Organization (2014) Neglected Tropical Diseases, PCT databank, Soil-transmitted helminthiases.
  22. 22. (2014) Soil-transmitted helminthiases: number of children treated in 2012. Weekly Epidemiol Rec 89: 133–140. pmid:24707519
  23. 23. World Health Organization. (2014) Neglected tropical diseases, PCT databank, Lymphatic filariasis. Accessed July 4, 2014.
  24. 24. World Health Organization. (2013) Rolling out and scaling up integrated preventive chemotherapy for selected neglected tropical diseases. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 88: 161–166. pmid:23620908
  25. 25. Babu S, Nutman TB (2012) Immunopathogenesis of lymphatic filarial disease. Semin Immunopathol 34: 847–861. pmid:23053393
  26. 26. World Health Organization (2010) Global Programme to eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis: Progress report 2000–2009 and strategic plan 2010–2020. Accessed November 18, 2014.
  27. 27. World Health Organization, Savioli L, Daumerie D, World Health Organization. Department of Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases. (2013) Sustaining the drive to overcome the global impact of neglected tropical diseases: second WHO report on neglected tropical diseases. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. xii, 138 pages p.
  28. 28. Furst T, Keiser J, Utzinger J (2012) Global burden of human food-borne trematodiasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis 12: 210–221. pmid:22108757
  29. 29. Miwa M, Honjo S, You G, Tanaka M, Uchida K, Srivatanakul P, et al. (2014) Genetic and environmental determinants of risk for cholangiocarcinoma in Thailand. World J Gastrointest Pathophysiol 5: 570–578. pmid:25401000
  30. 30. Sripa B, Tangkawattana S, Laha T, Kaewkes S, Mallory FF, Smith JF, et al. (2014) Toward integrated opisthorchiasis control in Northeast Thailand: The Lawa project. Acta Trop.
  31. 31. Bragazzi MC, Cardinale V, Carpino G, Venere R, Semeraro R, Gentile R, et al. (2012) Cholangiocarcinoma: Epidemiology and risk factors. Transl Gastrointest Cancer 1: 21–32.
  32. 32. Leonardo L, Rivera P, Saniel O, Villacorte E, Lebanan MA, Crisostomo B, et al. (2012) A national baseline prevalence survey of schistosomiasis in the Philippines using stratified two-step systematic cluster sampling design. J Trop Med 2012: 936128. pmid:22518170
  33. 33. World Health Organization. (2014) Neglected tropical diseases, PCT databank, Schistosomiasis. Accessed July 4, 2014.
  34. 34. Ross AG, Olveda RM, Chy D, Olveda DU, Li Y, Harn DA, et al. (2014) Can Mass Drug Administration Lead to the Sustainable Control of Schistosomiasis? J Infect Dis.
  35. 35. Eamsobhana P (2013) Angiostrongyliasis in Thailand: epidemiology and laboratory investigations. Hawaii J Med Public Health 72: 28–32. pmid:23901379
  36. 36. Trung DD, Praet N, Cam TD, Lam BV, Manh HN, Gabriël S, et al. (2013) Assessing the burden of human cysticercosis in Vietnam. Trop Med Int Health 18: 352–356. pmid:23279716
  37. 37. Wandra T, Sudewi AA, Swastika IK, Sutisna P, Dharmawan NS, Yulfi H, et al. (2011) Taeniasis/cysticercosis in Bali, Indonesia. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 42: 793–802. pmid:22299461
  38. 38. McManus DP (2010) Echinococcosis with particular reference to Southeast Asia. Adv Parasitol 72: 267–303. pmid:20624535
  39. 39. Leelayoova S, Siripattanapipong S, Hitakarun A, Kato H, Tan-ariya P, Siriyasatien P, et al. (2013) Multilocus characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Leishmania siamensis isolated from autochthonous visceral leishmaniasis cases, southern Thailand. BMC Microbiol 13: 60. pmid:23506297
  40. 40. Kattipathanapong P, Akaraphanth R, Krudsood S, Riganti M, Viriyavejakul P (2012) The first reported case of autochthonous cutaneous leishmaniasis in Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 43: 17–20. pmid:23082549
  41. 41. Al-Harazi T, Ghani MK, Othman H (2013) Prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections among Orang Asli schoolchildren in Pos Senderut, Pahang, Malaysia. J Egypt Soc Parasitol 43: 561–568. pmid:24640856
  42. 42. Al-Mekhlafi HM, Al-Maktari MT, Jani R, Ahmed A, Anuar TS, Moktar N, et al. (2013) Burden of Giardia duodenalis infection and its adverse effects on growth of schoolchildren in rural Malaysia. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7: e2516. pmid:24205426
  43. 43. Al-Mekhlafi HM, Mahdy MA, Azlin MY, Fatmah MS, Norhayati M (2011) Childhood Cryptosporidium infection among aboriginal communities in Peninsular Malaysia. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 105: 135–143. pmid:21396250
  44. 44. Pipatsatitpong D, Rangsin R, Leelayoova S, Naaglor T, Mungthin M (2012) Incidence and risk factors of Blastocystis infection in an orphanage in Bangkok, Thailand. Parasit Vectors 5: 37. pmid:22330427
  45. 45. Chandramathi S, Suresh K, Sivanandam S, Kuppusamy UR (2014) Stress exacerbates infectivity and pathogenicity of Blastocystis hominis: in vitro and in vivo evidences. PLoS One 9: e94567. pmid:24788756
  46. 46. Chandramathi S, Suresh K, Anita ZB, Kuppusamy UR (2012) Infections of Blastocystis hominis and microsporidia in cancer patients: are they opportunistic? Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 106: 267–269. pmid:22340948
  47. 47. Idris NS, Dwipoerwantoro PG, Kurniawan A, Said M (2010) Intestinal parasitic infection of immunocompromised children with diarrhoea: clinical profile and therapeutic response. J Infect Dev Ctries 4: 309–317. pmid:20539063
  48. 48. Kurniawan A, Karyadi T, Dwintasari SW, Sari IP, Yunihastuti E, Djauzi S, et al. (2009) Intestinal parasitic infections in HIV/AIDS patients presenting with diarrhoea in Jakarta, Indonesia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 103: 892–898. pmid:19327806
  49. 49. Onichandran S, Kumar T, Salibay CC, Dungca JZ, Tabo HA, Tabo N, et al. (2014) Waterborne parasites: a current status from the Philippines. Parasit Vectors 7: 244. pmid:24885105
  50. 50. Kumar T, Onichandran S, Lim YA, Sawangjaroen N, Ithoi I, Andiappan H, et al. (2014) Comparative study on waterborne parasites between Malaysia and Thailand: A new insight. Am J Trop Med Hyg 90: 682–689. pmid:24567315
  51. 51. Ngui R, Lim YA, Amir NF, Nissapatorn V, Mahmud R (2011) Seroprevalence and sources of toxoplasmosis among Orang Asli (indigenous) communities in Peninsular Malaysia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 85: 660–666. pmid:21976569
  52. 52. World Health Organization (2013) WHO Global Malaria Programme World Malaria Report 2013. Geneva, Switzerland.
  53. 53. World Health Organization. (2014) Global Health Observatory Data Repository, Estimated cases Data by country. Accessed September 11, 2014.
  54. 54. World Health Organization (2014) Global Health Observatory (GHO) Number of malaria cases.
  55. 55. Singh B, Daneshvar C (2013) Human infections and detection of Plasmodium knowlesi. Clin Microbiol Rev 26: 165–184. pmid:23554413
  56. 56. Moyes CL, Henry AJ, Golding N, Huang Z, Singh B, Baird JK, et al. (2014) Defining the geographical range of the Plasmodium knowlesi reservoir. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 8: e2780. pmid:24676231
  57. 57. Yusof R, Lau YL, Mahmud R, Fong MY, Jelip J, Ngian HU, et al. (2014) High proportion of knowlesi malaria in recent malaria cases in Malaysia. Malar J 13: 168. pmid:24886266
  58. 58. ASEAN Affairs. (2014) Is Tuberculosis still a threat? Accessed September 11, 2014.
  59. 59. Ng KP, Yew SM, Chan CL, Chong J, Tang SN, Soo-Hoo TS, et al. (2013) Draft Genome Sequence of the First Isolate of Extensively Drug-Resistant (XDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Malaysia. Genome Announc 1.
  60. 60. Merritt RW, Walker ED, Small PL, Wallace JR, Johnson PD, Benbow ME, et al. (2010) Ecology and transmission of Buruli ulcer disease: a systematic review. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4: e911. pmid:21179505
  61. 61. Tan M, Kusriastuti R, Savioli L, Hotez PJ (2014) Indonesia: an emerging market economy beset by neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). PLoS Negl Trop Dis 8: e2449. pmid:24587452
  62. 62. Hotez PJ, Dumonteil E, Betancourt Cravioto M, Bottazzi ME, Tapia-Conyer R, Meymandi S, et al. (2013) An unfolding tragedy of Chagas disease in North America. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7: e2300. pmid:24205411
  63. 63. World Health Organization. (2014) Neglected tropical diseases, PCT databank, Trachoma. Accessed June 27, 2014.
  64. 64. Acestor N, Cooksey R, Newton PN, Menard D, Guerin PJ, Nakagawa J, et al. (2012) Mapping the aetiology of non-malarial febrile illness in Southeast Asia through a systematic review—terra incognita impairing treatment policies. PLoS One 7: e44269. pmid:22970193
  65. 65. Aung AK, Spelman DW, Murray RJ, Graves S (2014) Rickettsial Infections in Southeast Asia: Implications for Local Populace and Febrile Returned Travelers. Am J Trop Med Hyg 91: 451–460. pmid:24957537
  66. 66. Currie BJ, Dance DA, Cheng AC (2008) The global distribution of Burkholderia pseudomallei and melioidosis: an update. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 102 Suppl 1: S1–4. pmid:19787859
  67. 67. Limmathurotsakul D, Wongratanacheewin S, Teerawattanasook N, Wongsuvan G, Chaisuksant S, Chetchotisakd P, et al. (2010) Increasing incidence of human melioidosis in Northeast Thailand. Am J Trop Med Hyg 82: 1113–1117. pmid:20519609
  68. 68. Limmathurotsakul D, Dance DA, Wuthiekanun V, Kaestli M, Mayo M, Warner J, et al. (2013) Systematic review and consensus guidelines for environmental sampling of Burkholderia pseudomallei. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7: e2105. pmid:23556010
  69. 69. Saito M, Miyahara S, Villanueva SY, Aramaki N, Ikejiri M, Kobayashi Y, et al. (2014) PCR and culture identification of pathogenic Leptospira from coastal soil in Leyte, Philippines after a storm surge during Super Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda). Appl Environ Microbiol.
  70. 70. Thaipadungpanit J, Wuthiekanun V, Chantratita N, Yimsamran S, Amornchai P, Boonsilp S, et al. (2013) Leptospira species in floodwater during the 2011 floods in the Bangkok Metropolitan Region, Thailand. Am J Trop Med Hyg 89: 794–796. pmid:24002484
  71. 71. Mendoza MT, Roxas EA, Ginete JK, Alejandria MM, Roman AD, Leyritana KT, et al. (2013) Clinical profile of patients diagnosed with leptospirosis after a typhoon: a multicenter study. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 44: 1021–1035. pmid:24450239
  72. 72. Thayaparan S, Robertson ID, Fairuz A, Suut L, Abdullah MT (2013) Leptospirosis, an emerging zoonotic disease in Malaysia. Malays J Pathol 35: 123–132. pmid:24362475
  73. 73. Bhatt S, Gething PW, Brady OJ, Messina JP, Farlow AW, Moyes C, et al. (2013) The global distribution and burden of dengue. Nature 496: 504–507. pmid:23563266
  74. 74. Shepard DS, Undurraga EA, Halasa YA (2013) Economic and disease burden of dengue in Southeast Asia. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7: e2055. pmid:23437406
  75. 75. Dash AP, Bhatia R, Sunyoto T, Mourya DT (2013) Emerging and re-emerging arboviral diseases in Southeast Asia. J Vector Borne Dis 50: 77–84. pmid:23995308
  76. 76. Myint KS, Kosasih H, Artika IM, Perkasa A, Puspita M, Ma'roef CN, et al. (2014) West Nile virus documented in Indonesia from acute febrile illness specimens. Am J Trop Med Hyg 90: 260–262. pmid:24420775
  77. 77. Mackenzie JS, Williams DT (2009) The zoonotic flaviviruses of southern, south-eastern and eastern Asia, and Australasia: the potential for emergent viruses. Zoonoses Public Health 56: 338–356. pmid:19486319
  78. 78. Weissenböck H, Hubálek Z, Bakonyi T, Nowotny N (2010) Zoonotic mosquito-borne flaviviruses: worldwide presence of agents with proven pathogenicity and potential candidates of future emerging diseases. Vet Microbiol 140: 271–280. pmid:19762169
  79. 79. Wu XB, Na RH, Wei SS, Zhu JS, Peng HJ (2013) Distribution of tick-borne diseases in China. Parasit Vectors 6: 119. pmid:23617899
  80. 80. Yoshii K, Mottate K, Omori-Urabe Y, Chiba Y, Seto T, Sanada T, et al. (2011) Epizootiological study of tick-borne encephalitis virus infection in Japan. J Vet Med Sci 73: 409–412. pmid:21060247
  81. 81. AbuBakar S, Chang LY, Ali AR, Sharifah SH, Yusoff K, Zamrod Z. (2004) Isolation and molecular identification of Nipah virus from pigs. Emerg Infect Dis 10: 2228–2230. pmid:15663869
  82. 82. AbuBakar S, Chee HY, Al-Kobaisi MF, Xiaoshan J, Chua KB, Lam SK. (1999) Identification of enterovirus 71 isolates from an outbreak of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) with fatal cases of encephalomyelitis in Malaysia. Virus Res 61: 1–9. pmid:10426204
  83. 83. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2013) Japanese encephalitis surveillance and immunization—Asia and the Western Pacific, 2012. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 62: 658–662. pmid:23965828
  84. 84. Labeaud AD, Bashir F, King CH (2011) Measuring the burden of arboviral diseases: the spectrum of morbidity and mortality from four prevalent infections. Popul Health Metr 9: 1. pmid:21219615
  85. 85. Fu ZF (2008) The rabies situation in Far East Asia. Dev Biol (Basel) 131: 55–61. pmid:18634466
  86. 86. Dimaano EM, Scholand SJ, Alera MT, Belandres DB (2011) Clinical and epidemiological features of human rabies cases in the Philippines: a review from 1987 to 2006. Int J Infect Dis 15: e495–499. pmid:21600825
  87. 87. Ngui R, Shafie A, Chua KH, Mistam MS, Al-Mekhlafi HM, Sulaiman WW, et al. (2014) Mapping and modelling the geographical distribution of soil-transmitted helminthiases in Peninsular Malaysia: implications for control approaches. Geospat Health 8: 365–376. pmid:24893014
  88. 88. USAID's NTD Program. (2014) Countries Supported by USAID's NTD Program. Accessed
  89. 89. Hotez PJ (2014) Could nitazoxanide be added to other essential medicines for integrated neglected tropical disease control and elimination? PLoS Negl Trop Dis 8: e2758. pmid:24675990
  90. 90. Speich B, Ame SM, Ali SM, Alles R, Hattendorf J, Utzinger J, et al. (2012) Efficacy and safety of nitazoxanide, albendazole, and nitazoxanide-albendazole against Trichuris trichiura infection: a randomized controlled trial. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6: e1685. pmid:22679525
  91. 91. Freeman MC, Ogden S, Jacobson J, Abbott D, Addiss DG, Amnie AG, et al. (2013) Integration of water, sanitation, and hygiene for the prevention and control of neglected tropical diseases: a rationale for inter-sectoral collaboration. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7: e2439. pmid:24086781
  92. 92. Zhou XN, Olveda R, Sripa B, Yang GJ, Leonardo L, Bergquist R. (2013) From gap analysis to solution and action: The RNAS model. Acta Trop.
  93. 93. Olveda R, Leonardo L, Zheng F, Sripa B, Bergquist R, Zhou XN. (2010) Coordinating research on neglected parasitic diseases in Southeast Asia through networking. Adv Parasitol 72: 55–77. pmid:20624528
  94. 94. ASEAN-NDI. (2014) ASEAN Network for Drugs, Diagnostics, Vaccines and Traditional Medicines Innovation. Accessed September 15, 2014.
  95. 95. World Health Organization. (2014) TDR- Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases. Accessed September 15, 2014.
  96. 96. Montoya JC, Rebulanan CL, Parungao NA, Ramirez B (2014) A look at the ASEAN-NDI: building a regional health R&D innovation network. Infect Dis Poverty 3: 15. pmid:24834349
  97. 97. ADB (2014) Addressing Diseases of Poverty. Accessed September 15, 2014.
  98. 98. World Health Organiztion (2012) Regional Strategic Plan for Integrated Neglected Tropical Diseases Control in South-East Asia Region: 2012–2016. Accessed September 29, 2014.
  99. 99. World Health Organization (2012) Regional Office of the Western Pacific: Neglected tropical diseases. Accessed September 15, 2014.
  100. 100. World Health Organization (2014) Addressing diseases of poverty: an initiative to reduce the unacceptable burden of neglected tropical diseases in the Asia Pacific region. Accessed September 24, 2014.
  101. 101. ASEANSTATS. (2014) Aseanstats—building knowledge in the ASEAN community. Accessed September September 24, 2014.
  102. 102. World Population Balance (2014) The global population situation. Accessed 09-24-2014.
  103. 103. World Health Organization (2012) Leprosy situation in 2012. Accessed September 24, 2014.