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Beyond frontiers: On invasive alien mosquito species in America and Europe

Fig 1

Invasion timeline of Culex coronator in the US and Aedes albopictus in Europe.

The color gradient represents the patterns of expansion ranging from red (first detection), to orange and yellow (subsequent detections), to green (most recent establishment) and blue (most recent detection) for C. coronator in the US (A) and A. albopictus in Europe (B). The map was created with ArcGIS 10.2 (Esri, Redlands, California) using layers freely available at and

Fig 1