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Madagascar can build stronger health systems to fight plague and prevent the next epidemic

Fig 2

Strengthened health systems are grounded in three components: (1) horizontal readiness includes supply chain management, adequate and well-trained staff, medicines, and infrastructure that must be available at all levels of care—primary care through basic health centers and community health programs, secondary hospital care (district hospitals), and tertiary care in national referral and university hospitals; (2) vertically integrated programs include routine clinical programs such as maternal-child health and infectious disease management, prevention activities such as vaccine campaigns, and emergency response to plague and other outbreaks; (3) integrated data from health management information systems and epidemiological surveillance.

Fig 2