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Madagascar can build stronger health systems to fight plague and prevent the next epidemic

Fig 1

Geographical distribution of plague cases in Madagascar.

Over 2,200 cases suspected (e.g., clinical symptoms), probable (e.g., positive RDT), and confirmed (e.g., Y. pestis isolated via culture) as reported by the World Health Organization as of November 2017 [1]; additional cases country wide were treated as plague based on clinical assessment but not officially reported due to a lack of diagnostic capacity.

Fig 1