Transcriptional Profiling of the Bladder in Urogenital Schistosomiasis Reveals Pathways of Inflammatory Fibrosis and Urothelial Compromise
Intramural injection of S. haematobium eggs results in granuloma development. A, micro-ultrasonography of a single representative animal injected with control vehicle showing no granuloma formation; B, micro-ultrasonography of a single representative animal injected with eggs, note the presence of a bright, echogenic round granuloma (denoted by white arrow). Intramural injection of S. haematobium eggs initiates histologically-evident granuloma formation by one week and persisting for over five weeks (D–F), while control vehicle injection does not result in granuloma formation (C). Intramural injection of S. haematobium eggs induces early and sustained urothelial hyperplasia with reactive nuclear changes (1, 3, and 5 weeks post-injection, H–J), whereas control vehicle injected-bladders feature normal appearing urothelium (G). Arginase-1-specific immunohistochemistry confirms widespread expression of the enzyme in the bladder 4 weeks post-egg injection (K).