About the Authors

Enala T. Mwase

Affiliation School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia

Anna-Sofie Stensgaard

asstensgaard@snm.ku.dk

Affiliations Department of Veterinary Disease Biology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark, Center for Macroecology, Evolution and Climate, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

Mutale Nsakashalo-Senkwe

Affiliation Ministry of Health, Lusaka, Zambia

Likezo Mubila

Affiliation World Health Organization, Regional Office for Africa, Harare, Zimbabwe

James Mwansa

Affiliation University Teaching Hospital, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia

Peter Songolo

Affiliation World Health Organization, Lusaka, Zambia

Sheila T. Shawa

Affiliation School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia

Paul E. Simonsen

Affiliation Department of Veterinary Disease Biology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: ETM LM JM PS STS MNS. Performed the experiments: ETM LM JM PS STS MNS. Analyzed the data: ETM AS PES. Wrote the paper: PES AS ETM. Designed, planned and supervised the field surveys: ETM LM JM PS STS MNS. Performed exploratory analysis of the field data: ETM PES AS. Conceived and designed the modeling study: AS PES ETM. Performed the modeling analyses: AS. Drafted the manuscript: PES AS ETM. Read and approved the final manuscript: ETM AS MNS JM PS STS PES.