About the Authors

Glyn A. Vale

valeglyn@gmail.com

Affiliations Natural Resources Institute, University of Greenwich, Chatham, United Kingdom, Southern African Centre for Epidemiological Modelling and Analysis, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa

John W. Hargrove

Affiliation Southern African Centre for Epidemiological Modelling and Analysis, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa

Andrew Chamisa

Affiliation Division of Tsetse Control, Harare, Zimbabwe

David R. Hall

Affiliation Natural Resources Institute, University of Greenwich, Chatham, United Kingdom

Clement Mangwiro

Affiliation Bindura University of Science Education, Bindura, Zimbabwe

Stephen J. Torr

Affiliations Vector Biology Department, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom, Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: GAV SJT. Performed the experiments: GAV SJT AC CM. Analyzed the data: GAV JWH. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: DRH. Wrote the paper: GAV SJT JWH.