About the Authors

Johan Esterhuizen

Affiliation Vector Group, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Jean Baptiste Rayaisse

Affiliation Centre International de Recherche et Développement sur l'Élevage en zone Subhumide (CIRDES), Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso

Inaki Tirados

Affiliation Natural Resource Institute, University of Greenwich, Chatham, Kent, United Kingdom

Serge Mpiana

Affiliation Laboratoire Vétérinaire Central de Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo

Philippe Solano

Affiliation Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, UMR 177 IRD-CIRAD, Montpellier, France

Glyn A. Vale

Affiliations Natural Resource Institute, University of Greenwich, Chatham, Kent, United Kingdom, SACEMA, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa

Michael J. Lehane

M.J.Lehane@liverpool.ac.uk

Affiliation Vector Group, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Stephen J. Torr

Affiliation Natural Resource Institute, University of Greenwich, Chatham, Kent, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: JE SJT GAV MJL PS IT JBR. Performed the experiments: JE JBR IT SM. Analyzed the data: JE SJT GAV MJL. Wrote the paper: JE MJL SJT GAV.