About the Authors

Lawrence C. Madoff

Affiliations Division of Infectious Disease and Immunology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, United States of America, Division of Epidemiology and Immunization, Massachusetts Department of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

David N. Fisman


Affiliations Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Departments of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Taha Kass-Hout

Affiliation Public Health Surveillance Program Office, Office of Surveillance, Epidemiology & Laboratory Services, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.