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Table of Contents

March 2019

The number of measles outbreaks is on the rise. In 2018, more than 80,000 cases were reported in the European region, representing a 3-fold increase from 2017. Despite the availability of an effective vaccine, some parents choose not to vaccinate their children, exposing them to this highly contagious viral infection and at risk of complications such as pneumonia (the most common cause of death for infected children), deafness and in rare instances eye disorders and meningitis. Further to this, unvaccinated women run the risk of stillbirths during pregnancy. A discredited study published in The Lancet in 1998, seized upon by the anti-vax movement, is largely to blame, and the movement is fueled by the reach and influence of social media.

In this month's Editorial, PLOS Medicine editors discuss this crisis and possible avenues for improving education and hopefully vaccination uptake.

Image Credit: James Gatheny, Judy Schmidt, USCDCP

Editorial

Measles vaccination: A matter of confidence and commitment

Richard Turner, on behalf of the PLOS Medicine Editors

Policy Forum

A whole-health–economy approach to antimicrobial stewardship: Analysis of current models and future direction

Monsey McLeod, Raheelah Ahmad, Nada Atef Shebl, Christianne Micallef, Fiona Sim, Alison Holmes

Collection Review

Keeping phase III tuberculosis trials relevant: Adapting to a rapidly changing landscape

Patrick P. J. Phillips, Carole D. Mitnick, James D. Neaton, Payam Nahid, Christian Lienhardt, Andrew J. Nunn

Research Articles

Health system performance for people with diabetes in 28 low- and middle-income countries: A cross-sectional study of nationally representative surveys

Jennifer Manne-Goehler, Pascal Geldsetzer, Kokou Agoudavi, Glennis Andall-Brereton, Krishna K. Aryal, Brice Wilfried Bicaba, Pascal Bovet, Garry Brian, Maria Dorobantu, Gladwell Gathecha, Mongal Singh Gurung, David Guwatudde, Mohamed Msaidie, Corine Houehanou, Dismand Houinato, Jutta Mari Adelin Jorgensen, Gibson B. Kagaruki, Khem B. Karki, Demetre Labadarios, Joao S. Martins, Mary T. Mayige, Roy Wong McClure, Omar Mwalim, Joseph Kibachio Mwangi, Bolormaa Norov, Sarah Quesnel-Crooks, Bahendeka K. Silver, Lela Sturua, Lindiwe Tsabedze, Chea Stanford Wesseh, Andrew Stokes, Maja Marcus, Cara Ebert, Justine I. Davies, Sebastian Vollmer, Rifat Atun, Till W. Bärnighausen, Lindsay M. Jaacks

Potential effectiveness of prophylactic HPV immunization for men who have sex with men in the Netherlands: A multi-model approach

Johannes A. Bogaards, Sofie H. Mooij, Maria Xiridou, Maarten F. Schim van der Loeff

The association between Zika virus infection and microcephaly in Brazil 2015–2017: An observational analysis of over 4 million births

Oliver J. Brady, Aaron Osgood-Zimmerman, Nicholas J. Kassebaum, Sarah E. Ray, Valdelaine E. M. de Araújo, Aglaêr A. da Nóbrega, Livia C. V. Frutuoso, Roberto C. R. Lecca, Antony Stevens, Bruno Zoca de Oliveira, José M. de Lima Jr., Isaac I. Bogoch, Philippe Mayaud, Thomas Jaenisch, Ali H. Mokdad, Christopher J. L. Murray, Simon I. Hay, Robert C. Reiner Jr., Fatima Marinho

Age distribution, trends, and forecasts of under-5 mortality in 31 sub-Saharan African countries: A modeling study

Iván Mejía-Guevara, Wenyun Zuo, Eran Bendavid, Nan Li, Shripad Tuljapurkar

Individual prognosis at diagnosis in nonmetastatic prostate cancer: Development and external validation of the PREDICT Prostate multivariable model

David R. Thurtle, David C. Greenberg, Lui S. Lee, Hong H. Huang, Paul D. Pharoah, Vincent J. Gnanapragasam

Seasonal malaria chemoprevention combined with community case management of malaria in children under 10 years of age, over 5 months, in south-east Senegal: A cluster-randomised trial

Jean Louis A. Ndiaye, Youssoupha Ndiaye, Mamadou S. Ba, Babacar Faye, Maguette Ndiaye, Amadou Seck, Roger Tine, Pape Moussa Thior, Sharanjeet Atwal, Khalid Beshir, Colin Sutherland, Oumar Gaye, Paul Milligan

Comparative effectiveness of generic and brand-name medication use: A database study of US health insurance claims

Rishi J. Desai, Ameet Sarpatwari, Sara Dejene, Nazleen F. Khan, Joyce Lii, James R. Rogers, Sarah K. Dutcher, Saeid Raofi, Justin Bohn, John G. Connolly, Michael A. Fischer, Aaron S. Kesselheim, Joshua J. Gagne

Cost-effectiveness of financial incentives for improving diet and health through Medicare and Medicaid: A microsimulation study

Yujin Lee, Dariush Mozaffarian, Stephen Sy, Yue Huang, Junxiu Liu, Parke E. Wilde, Shafika Abrahams-Gessel, Thiago de Souza Veiga Jardim, Thomas A. Gaziano, Renata Micha

Independent and combined effects of improved water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) and improved complementary feeding on early neurodevelopment among children born to HIV-negative mothers in rural Zimbabwe: Substudy of a cluster-randomized trial

Melissa J. Gladstone, Jaya Chandna, Gwendoline Kandawasvika, Robert Ntozini, Florence D. Majo, Naume V. Tavengwa, Mduduzi N. N. Mbuya, Goldberg T. Mangwadu, Ancikaria Chigumira, Cynthia M. Chasokela, Lawrence H. Moulton, Rebecca J. Stoltzfus, Jean H. Humphrey, Andrew J. Prendergast, for the SHINE Trial Team

Community health workers to improve uptake of maternal healthcare services: A cluster-randomized pragmatic trial in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

Pascal Geldsetzer, Eric Mboggo, Elysia Larson, Irene Andrew Lema, Lucy Magesa, Lameck Machumi, Nzovu Ulenga, David Sando, Mary Mwanyika-Sando, Donna Spiegelman, Ester Mungure, Nan Li, Hellen Siril, Phares Mujinja, Helga Naburi, Guerino Chalamilla, Charles Kilewo, Anna Mia Ekström, Dawn Foster, Wafaie Fawzi, Till Bärnighausen

Incidence of eclampsia and related complications across 10 low- and middle-resource geographical regions: Secondary analysis of a cluster randomised controlled trial

Nicola Vousden, Elodie Lawley, Paul T. Seed, Muchabayiwa Francis Gidiri, Shivaprasad Goudar, Jane Sandall, Lucy C. Chappell, Andrew H. Shennan, on behalf of the CRADLE Trial Collaborative Group