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Table of Contents

April 2018

This month in a PLOS Medicine Essay, Michael Johansson and colleagues analyze publications on Ebola and Zika to demonstrate how the sharing of preprints—scientific manuscripts that are posted in a publicly accessible, online repository before peer review for journal publication—can accelerate access to information in infectious disease outbreaks.

In an Editorial, the PLOS Medicine Editors raise the question of how, as preprint posting becomes more routine, the medical research community can best fulfill the Hippocratic imperative to do no harm while avoiding undue delays in information sharing that may result in harm.

The Editors propose a framework in which constituents including researchers, preprint service providers, journals and the news media participate in 3 fundamental practices: ensuring transparency in reporting, maintaining clarity about the role of a preprint versus a peer-reviewed journal article, and taking responsibility for safety.

Image Credit: Pxhere.com

Editorial

Preprints in medical research: Progress and principles

Larry Peiperl, on behalf of the PLOS Medicine Editors

Essay

Preprints: An underutilized mechanism to accelerate outbreak science

Michael A. Johansson, Nicholas G. Reich, Lauren Ancel Meyers, Marc Lipsitch

Research Articles

Genetic scores to stratify risk of developing multiple islet autoantibodies and type 1 diabetes: A prospective study in children

Ezio Bonifacio, Andreas Beyerlein, Markus Hippich, Christiane Winkler, Kendra Vehik, Michael N. Weedon, Michael Laimighofer, Andrew T. Hattersley, Jan Krumsiek, Brigitte I. Frohnert, Andrea K. Steck, William A. Hagopian, Jeffrey P. Krischer, Åke Lernmark, Marian J. Rewers, Jin-Xiong She, Jorma Toppari, Beena Akolkar, Richard A. Oram, Stephen S. Rich, Anette-G. Ziegler, for the TEDDY Study Group

Estimating the health and economic effects of the proposed US Food and Drug Administration voluntary sodium reformulation: Microsimulation cost-effectiveness analysis

Jonathan Pearson-Stuttard, Chris Kypridemos, Brendan Collins, Dariush Mozaffarian, Yue Huang, Piotr Bandosz, Simon Capewell, Laurie Whitsel, Parke Wilde, Martin O’Flaherty, Renata Micha

Breastfeeding during infancy and neurocognitive function in adolescence: 16-year follow-up of the PROBIT cluster-randomized trial

Seungmi Yang, Richard M. Martin, Emily Oken, Mikhail Hameza, Glen Doniger, Shimon Amit, Rita Patel, Jennifer Thompson, Sheryl L. Rifas-Shiman, Konstantin Vilchuck, Natalia Bogdanovich, Michael S. Kramer

Maternal age and offspring developmental vulnerability at age five: A population-based cohort study of Australian children

Kathleen Falster, Mark Hanly, Emily Banks, John Lynch, Georgina Chambers, Marni Brownell, Sandra Eades, Louisa Jorm

Determining the scope of attacks on health in four governorates of Syria in 2016: Results of a field surveillance program

Rohini J. Haar, Casey B. Risko, Sonal Singh, Diana Rayes, Ahmad Albaik, Mohammed Alnajar, Mazen Kewara, Emily Clouse, Elise Baker, Leonard S. Rubenstein

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