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November 2016

Events of 2016 have underscored divides between people that call to mind, and in some cases mirror, disparities in health and healthcare. At the same time, progress in medical research has provided many reasons for shared optimism.

For this month’s Editorial, PLOS Medicine has invited 7 global health leaders to discuss key developments from 2016 impacting the equitable provision of effective medical care to all populations. The authors—ranging from the inaugural National Institutes of Health Chief Officer for Scientific Workforce Diversity to the Dean of Medicine at the University of Hong Kong—share insights from frontline efforts toward racial/ethnic representation in clinical studies, ethical and effective research during outbreaks, controlling high-burden infectious diseases, and provision of healthcare to vulnerable migrants.

Their thoughts on the year highlight unanswered questions, but also reflect the talent and collaborative spirit abundant in the global health research community.

Image Credit: PATH global health, Flickr

Editorial

Towards Equity in Health: Researchers Take Stock

The PLOS Medicine Editors, Annette Rid, Michael A. Johansson, Gabriel Leung, Hannah Valantine, Esteban G. Burchard, Sam S. Oh, Cathy Zimmerman

Essay

Will 10 Million People Die a Year due to Antimicrobial Resistance by 2050?

Marlieke E. A. de Kraker, Andrew J. Stewardson, Stephan Harbarth

Perspectives

Three Steps to Improve Management of Noncommunicable Diseases in Humanitarian Crises

Kiran Jobanputra, Philippa Boulle, Bayard Roberts, Pablo Perel

Guidelines and Guidance

A Core Outcome Set for the Benefits and Adverse Events of Bariatric and Metabolic Surgery: The BARIACT Project

Karen D. Coulman, James Hopkins, Sara T. Brookes, Katy Chalmers, Barry Main, Amanda Owen-Smith, Robert C. Andrews, James Byrne, Jenny L. Donovan, Graziella Mazza, Barnaby C. Reeves, Chris A. Rogers, Janice L. Thompson, Richard Welbourn, Sarah Wordsworth, Jane M. Blazeby, BARIACT working group

Research Articles

Projected Impact of Mexico’s Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Tax Policy on Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease: A Modeling Study

Luz Maria Sánchez-Romero, Joanne Penko, Pamela G. Coxson, Alicia Fernández, Antoinette Mason, Andrew E. Moran, Leticia Ávila-Burgos, Michelle Odden, Simón Barquera, Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo

Pregnancy-Associated Changes in Pharmacokinetics: A Systematic Review

Gali Pariente, Tom Leibson, Alexandra Carls, Thomasin Adams-Webber, Shinya Ito, Gideon Koren

Related Articles

Risk Factors for Childhood Stunting in 137 Developing Countries: A Comparative Risk Assessment Analysis at Global, Regional, and Country Levels

Goodarz Danaei, Kathryn G. Andrews, Christopher R. Sudfeld, Günther Fink, Dana Charles McCoy, Evan Peet, Ayesha Sania, Mary C. Smith Fawzi, Majid Ezzati, Wafaie W. Fawzi

Promoting Partner Testing and Couples Testing through Secondary Distribution of HIV Self-Tests: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Samuel H. Masters, Kawango Agot, Beatrice Obonyo, Sue Napierala Mavedzenge, Suzanne Maman, Harsha Thirumurthy

Measures of Malaria Burden after Long-Lasting Insecticidal Net Distribution and Indoor Residual Spraying at Three Sites in Uganda: A Prospective Observational Study

Agaba Katureebe, Kate Zinszer, Emmanuel Arinaitwe, John Rek, Elijah Kakande, Katia Charland, Ruth Kigozi, Maxwell Kilama, Joaniter Nankabirwa, Adoke Yeka, Henry Mawejje, Arthur Mpimbaza, Henry Katamba, Martin J. Donnelly, Philip J. Rosenthal, Chris Drakeley, Steve W. Lindsay, Sarah G. Staedke, David L. Smith, Bryan Greenhouse, Moses R. Kamya, Grant Dorsey

Under-prescribing of Prevention Drugs and Primary Prevention of Stroke and Transient Ischaemic Attack in UK General Practice: A Retrospective Analysis

Grace M. Turner, Melanie Calvert, Max G. Feltham, Ronan Ryan, David Fitzmaurice, K. K. Cheng, Tom Marshall

Exposure Patterns Driving Ebola Transmission in West Africa: A Retrospective Observational Study

International Ebola Response Team, Junerlyn Agua-Agum, Archchun Ariyarajah, Bruce Aylward, Luke Bawo, Pepe Bilivogui, Isobel M. Blake, Richard J. Brennan, Amy Cawthorne, Eilish Cleary, Peter Clement, Roland Conteh, Anne Cori, Foday Dafae, Benjamin Dahl, Jean-Marie Dangou, Boubacar Diallo, Christl A. Donnelly, Ilaria Dorigatti, Christopher Dye, Tim Eckmanns, Mosoka Fallah, Neil M. Ferguson, Lena Fiebig, Christophe Fraser, Tini Garske, Lice Gonzalez, Esther Hamblion, Nuha Hamid, Sara Hersey, Wes Hinsley, Amara Jambei, Thibaut Jombart, David Kargbo, Sakoba Keita, Michael Kinzer, Fred Kuti George, Beatrice Godefroy, Giovanna Gutierrez, Niluka Kannangarage, Harriet L. Mills, Thomas Moller, Sascha Meijers, Yasmine Mohamed, Oliver Morgan, Gemma Nedjati-Gilani, Emily Newton, Pierre Nouvellet, Tolbert Nyenswah, William Perea, Devin Perkins, Steven Riley, Guenael Rodier, Marc Rondy, Maria Sagrado, Camelia Savulescu, Ilana J. Schafer, Dirk Schumacher, Thomas Seyler, Anita Shah, Maria D. Van Kerkhove, C. Samford Wesseh, Zabulon Yoti

Validity of a Minimally Invasive Autopsy for Cause of Death Determination in Adults in Mozambique: An Observational Study

Paola Castillo, Miguel J. Martínez, Esperança Ussene, Dercio Jordao, Lucilia Lovane, Mamudo R. Ismail, Carla Carrilho, Cesaltina Lorenzoni, Fabiola Fernandes, Rosa Bene, Antonio Palhares, Luiz Ferreira, Marcus Lacerda, Inacio Mandomando, Jordi Vila, Juan Carlos Hurtado, Khátia Munguambe, Maria Maixenchs, Ariadna Sanz, Llorenç Quintó, Eusebio Macete, Pedro Alonso, Quique Bassat, Clara Menéndez, Jaume Ordi

Related Articles

Willingness to Know the Cause of Death and Hypothetical Acceptability of the Minimally Invasive Autopsy in Six Diverse African and Asian Settings: A Mixed Methods Socio-Behavioural Study

Maria Maixenchs, Rui Anselmo, Emily Zielinski-Gutiérrez, Frank O. Odhiambo, Clarah Akello, Maureen Ondire, S. Shujaat H. Zaidi, Sajid Bashir Soofi, Zulfiqar A. Bhutta, Kounandji Diarra, Mahamane Djitèye, Roukiatou Dembélé, Samba Sow, Pamela Cathérine Angoissa Minsoko, Selidji Todagbe Agnandji, Bertrand Lell, Mamudo R. Ismail, Carla Carrilho, Jaume Ordi, Clara Menéndez, Quique Bassat, Khátia Munguambe

Related Articles

Effectiveness of Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention in Children under Ten Years of Age in Senegal: A Stepped-Wedge Cluster-Randomised Trial

Badara Cissé, El Hadj Ba, Cheikh Sokhna, Jean Louis NDiaye, Jules F. Gomis, Yankhoba Dial, Catherine Pitt, Mouhamed NDiaye, Matthew Cairns, Ernest Faye, Magatte NDiaye, Aminata Lo, Roger Tine, Sylvain Faye, Babacar Faye, Ousmane Sy, Lansana Konate, Ekoue Kouevijdin, Clare Flach, Ousmane Faye, Jean-Francois Trape, Colin Sutherland, Fatou Ba Fall, Pape M. Thior, Oumar K. Faye, Brian Greenwood, Oumar Gaye, Paul Milligan

Related Articles

Educational Outreach with an Integrated Clinical Tool for Nurse-Led Non-communicable Chronic Disease Management in Primary Care in South Africa: A Pragmatic Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial

Lara R. Fairall, Naomi Folb, Venessa Timmerman, Carl Lombard, Krisela Steyn, Max O. Bachmann, Eric D. Bateman, Crick Lund, Ruth Cornick, Gill Faris, Thomas Gaziano, Daniella Georgeu-Pepper, Merrick Zwarenstein, Naomi S. Levitt

Genetic Predisposition to an Impaired Metabolism of the Branched-Chain Amino Acids and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: A Mendelian Randomisation Analysis

Luca A. Lotta, Robert A. Scott, Stephen J. Sharp, Stephen Burgess, Jian’an Luan, Therese Tillin, Amand F. Schmidt, Fumiaki Imamura, Isobel D. Stewart, John R. B. Perry, Luke Marney, Albert Koulman, Edward D. Karoly, Nita G. Forouhi, Rasmus J. O. Sjögren, Erik Näslund, Juleen R. Zierath, Anna Krook, David B. Savage, Julian L. Griffin, Nishi Chaturvedi, Aroon D. Hingorani, Kay-Tee Khaw, Inês Barroso, Mark I. McCarthy, Stephen O’Rahilly, Nicholas J. Wareham, Claudia Langenberg

The Long-Term Safety, Public Health Impact, and Cost-Effectiveness of Routine Vaccination with a Recombinant, Live-Attenuated Dengue Vaccine (Dengvaxia): A Model Comparison Study

Stefan Flasche, Mark Jit, Isabel Rodríguez-Barraquer, Laurent Coudeville, Mario Recker, Katia Koelle, George Milne, Thomas J. Hladish, T. Alex Perkins, Derek A. T. Cummings, Ilaria Dorigatti, Daniel J. Laydon, Guido España, Joel Kelso, Ira Longini, Jose Lourenco, Carl A. B. Pearson, Robert C. Reiner, Luis Mier-y-Terán-Romero, Kirsten Vannice, Neil Ferguson

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Patient-Reported Barriers to Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Zara Shubber, Edward J. Mills, Jean B. Nachega, Rachel Vreeman, Marcelo Freitas, Peter Bock, Sabin Nsanzimana, Martina Penazzato, Tsitsi Appolo, Meg Doherty, Nathan Ford

Lifestyle Advice Combined with Personalized Estimates of Genetic or Phenotypic Risk of Type 2 Diabetes, and Objectively Measured Physical Activity: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Job G. Godino, Esther M. F. van Sluijs, Theresa M. Marteau, Stephen Sutton, Stephen J. Sharp, Simon J. Griffin

Leukocyte Telomere Length in Relation to 17 Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Disease Risk: A Cross-Sectional Study of US Adults

David H. Rehkopf, Belinda L. Needham, Jue Lin, Elizabeth H. Blackburn, Ami R. Zota, Janet M. Wojcicki, Elissa S. Epel