Table of Contents

September 2016

On September 21st, 2016 the United Nations General Assembly convened in New York, United States to tackle a looming and seemingly inevitable global challenge with the potential to threaten the health and wellbeing of all people: antimicrobial resistance. In an Editorial, the PLOS Medicine Editors reflect on the challenge of coordinating the response to antimicrobial resistance in order to ensure the viability of current antimicrobials and the development of new therapies against resistant pathogens.

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Antimicrobial Resistance: Is the World UNprepared?

The PLOS Medicine Editors


International Criteria for Acute Kidney Injury: Advantages and Remaining Challenges

Nicholas M. Selby, Richard J. Fluck, Nitin V. Kolhe, Maarten W. Taal


Health in Action

A Médecins Sans Frontières Ethics Framework for Humanitarian Innovation

Julian Sheather, Kiran Jobanputra, Doris Schopper, John Pringle, Sarah Venis, Sidney Wong, Robin Vincent-Smith

Research Articles

Associations between Extending Access to Primary Care and Emergency Department Visits: A Difference-In-Differences Analysis

William Whittaker, Laura Anselmi, Søren Rud Kristensen, Yiu-Shing Lau, Simon Bailey, Peter Bower, Katherine Checkland, Rebecca Elvey, Katy Rothwell, Jonathan Stokes, Damian Hodgson

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Association between Adult Height and Risk of Colorectal, Lung, and Prostate Cancer: Results from Meta-analyses of Prospective Studies and Mendelian Randomization Analyses

Nikhil K. Khankari, Xiao-Ou Shu, Wanqing Wen, Peter Kraft, Sara Lindström, Ulrike Peters, Joellen Schildkraut, Fredrick Schumacher, Paolo Bofetta, Angela Risch, Heike Bickeböller, Christopher I. Amos, Douglas Easton, Rosalind A. Eeles, Stephen B. Gruber, Christopher A. Haiman, David J. Hunter, Stephen J. Chanock, Brandon L. Pierce, Wei Zheng, on behalf of the Colorectal Transdisciplinary Study (CORECT), Discovery, Biology, and Risk of Inherited Variants in Breast Cancer (DRIVE), Elucidating Loci Involved in Prostate Cancer Susceptibility (ELLIPSE), Transdisciplinary Research in Cancer of the Lung (TRICL)

Sex Differences in Tuberculosis Burden and Notifications in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Katherine C. Horton, Peter MacPherson, Rein M. G. J. Houben, Richard G. White, Elizabeth L. Corbett

Potential for Controlling Cholera Using a Ring Vaccination Strategy: Re-analysis of Data from a Cluster-Randomized Clinical Trial

Mohammad Ali, Amanda K. Debes, Francisco J. Luquero, Deok Ryun Kim, Je Yeon Park, Laura Digilio, Byomkesh Manna, Suman Kanungo, Shanta Dutta, Dipika Sur, Sujit K. Bhattacharya, David A. Sack

The Incidence Patterns Model to Estimate the Distribution of New HIV Infections in Sub-Saharan Africa: Development and Validation of a Mathematical Model

Annick Bórquez, Anne Cori, Erica L. Pufall, Jingo Kasule, Emma Slaymaker, Alison Price, Jocelyn Elmes, Basia Zaba, Amelia C. Crampin, Joseph Kagaayi, Tom Lutalo, Mark Urassa, Simon Gregson, Timothy B. Hallett

Scheduled Intermittent Screening with Rapid Diagnostic Tests and Treatment with Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine versus Intermittent Preventive Therapy with Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine for Malaria in Pregnancy in Malawi: An Open-Label Randomized Controlled Trial

Mwayiwawo Madanitsa, Linda Kalilani, Victor Mwapasa, Anna M. van Eijk, Carole Khairallah, Doreen Ali, Cheryl Pace, James Smedley, Kyaw-Lay Thwai, Brandt Levitt, Duolao Wang, Arthur Kang’ombe, Brian Faragher, Steve M. Taylor, Steve Meshnick, Feiko O. ter Kuile

Chronic Kidney Disease in Primary Care: Outcomes after Five Years in a Prospective Cohort Study

Adam Shardlow, Natasha J. McIntyre, Richard J. Fluck, Christopher W. McIntyre, Maarten W. Taal

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Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Use by Breastfeeding HIV-Uninfected Women: A Prospective Short-Term Study of Antiretroviral Excretion in Breast Milk and Infant Absorption

Kenneth K. Mugwanya, Craig W. Hendrix, Nelly R. Mugo, Mark Marzinke, Elly T. Katabira, Kenneth Ngure, Nulu B. Semiyaga, Grace John-Stewart, Timothy R. Muwonge, Gabriel Muthuri, Andy Stergachis, Connie L. Celum, Jared M. Baeten

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