Table of Contents

December 2009

This issue of PLoS Medicine features two Policy Forums on blindness. In the first, Paul Courtright and colleagues (e177) argue that the patterns of global childhood blindness are changing. With reductions in nutritional and infectious causes of blindness, intrauterine and genetic causes have become more important, suggesting a need to reassess research, training, and programmatic requirements. In the second, Susan Lewallen and Amir Bedri Kello (e184) argue that human resources management will be crucial in reaching the global goal of eliminating avoidable blindness in sub-Saharan Africa by the year 2020. Also, in this month's Editorial the PLoS Medicine editors reflect upon how much the publishing of research relies on a foundation of trust between authors, editors, peer reviewers, and readers. They argue that this relationship sometimes becomes tried, tested, and even broken. Thus, in the spirit of New Year's resolutions, the editors look to the future and set down some guidelines for authors, readers, reviewers, and editors themselves to maintain and renew the trusting foundations that are essential to publishing research.

Image Credit: Ray Lopez, DownTown Pictures at



Influenza in Africa

Maria Yazdanbakhsh, Peter G. Kremsner

Health in Action

A “One Health” Approach to Address Emerging Zoonoses: The HALI Project in Tanzania

Jonna A. K. Mazet, Deana L. Clifford, Peter B. Coppolillo, Anil B. Deolalikar, Jon D. Erickson, Rudovick R. Kazwala

Global Health Delivery 2.0: Using Open-Access Technologies for Transparency and Operations Research

Duncan Smith-Rohrberg Maru, Aditya Sharma, Jason Andrews, Sanjay Basu, Jhapat Thapa, Shefali Oza, Chhitij Bashyal, Bibhav Acharya, Ryan Schwarz

Policy Forums

Blindness in Childhood in Developing Countries: Time for a Reassessment?

Parikshit Gogate, Khumbo Kalua, Paul Courtright

Increasing Access to Surgical Services in Sub-Saharan Africa: Priorities for National and International Agencies Recommended by the Bellagio Essential Surgery Group

Sam Luboga, Sarah B. Macfarlane, Johan von Schreeb, Margaret E. Kruk, Meena N. Cherian, Staffan Bergström, Paul B. M. Bossyns, Ernest Denerville, Delanyo Dovlo, Moses Galukande, Renee Y. Hsia, Sudha P. Jayaraman, Lindsey A. Lubbock, Charles Mock, Doruk Ozgediz, Patrick Sekimpi, Andreas Wladis, Ahmed Zakariah, Naméoua Babadi Dade, Peter Donkor, Jane Kabutu Gatumbu, Patrick Hoekman, Carel B. IJsselmuiden, Dean T. Jamison, Nasreen Jessani, Peter Jiskoot, Ignatius Kakande, Jacqueline R. Mabweijano, Naboth Mbembati, Colin McCord, Cephas Mijumbi, Helder de Miranda, Charles A. Mkony, Pascoal Mocumbi, Jean Bosco Ndihokubwayo, Pierre Ngueumachi, Gebreamlak Ogbaselassie, Evariste Lodi Okitombahe, Cheikh Tidiane Toure, Fernando Vaz, Charlotte M. Zikusooka, Haile T. Debas, for the Bellagio Essential Surgery Group (BESG)

Research in Translation

Sexual Inequality in Tuberculosis

Olivier Neyrolles, Lluis Quintana-Murci

Research Articles

The Severity of Pandemic H1N1 Influenza in the United States, from April to July 2009: A Bayesian Analysis

Anne M. Presanis, Daniela De Angelis, The New York City Swine Flu Investigation Team 3 ¶, Angela Hagy, Carrie Reed, Steven Riley, Ben S. Cooper, Lyn Finelli, Paul Biedrzycki, Marc Lipsitch

Immediate Risk for Cardiovascular Events and Suicide Following a Prostate Cancer Diagnosis: Prospective Cohort Study

Katja Fall, Fang Fang, Lorelei A. Mucci, Weimin Ye, Ove Andrén, Jan-Erik Johansson, Swen-Olof Andersson, Pär Sparén, Georg Klein, Meir Stampfer, Hans-Olov Adami, Unnur Valdimarsdóttir

The Global Spread of Hepatitis C Virus 1a and 1b: A Phylodynamic and Phylogeographic Analysis

Gkikas Magiorkinis, Emmanouil Magiorkinis, Dimitrios Paraskevis, Simon Y. W. Ho, Beth Shapiro, Oliver G. Pybus, Jean-Pierre Allain, Angelos Hatzakis

Early and Late Direct Costs in a Southern African Antiretroviral Treatment Programme: A Retrospective Cohort Analysis

Rory Leisegang, Susan Cleary, Michael Hislop, Alistair Davidse, Leon Regensberg, Francesca Little, Gary Maartens

School Playground Surfacing and Arm Fractures in Children: A Cluster Randomized Trial Comparing Sand to Wood Chip Surfaces

Andrew W. Howard, Colin Macarthur, Linda Rothman, Andrew Willan, Alison K. Macpherson

Blood Glucose and Risk of Incident and Fatal Cancer in the Metabolic Syndrome and Cancer Project (Me-Can): Analysis of Six Prospective Cohorts

Tanja Stocks, Kilian Rapp, Tone Bjørge, Jonas Manjer, Hanno Ulmer, Randi Selmer, Annekatrin Lukanova, Dorthe Johansen, Hans Concin, Steinar Tretli, Göran Hallmans, Håkan Jonsson, Pär Stattin

The APPLe Study: A Randomized, Community-Based, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Azithromycin for the Prevention of Preterm Birth, with Meta-Analysis

Nynke R. van den Broek, Sarah A. White, Mark Goodall, Chikondi Ntonya, Edith Kayira, George Kafulafula, James P. Neilson