Table of Contents: August 2008

This month's editorial lays out five reasons why providing surgery should be considered a global health priority, and argues that surgery could play an essential role in meeting many of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals.

Surgical conditions constitute a substantial amount of the global burden of disease and they disproportionately affect the world's rural poor in the lowest income countries—a fact highlighted in a paper (Ozgediz et al., e121) published in June, which argued that essential surgical care must be recognized as a basic human right by the global public health community. By understanding the role that surgical services can play in reducing child mortality, improving maternal health, tackling infectious diseases, and alleviating poverty, the editorial suggests that they can outgrow their status as the "neglected stepchild of global public health."

Image Credit: Surgical training at Makerere University in Kampala, Uganda, photographed by Doruk Ozgediz. Originally published as Figure 1 in Ozgediz D, Riviello R (2008) The "Other" Neglected Diseases in Global Public Health: Surgical Conditions in Sub-Saharan Africa. PLoS Med 5(6): e121 doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0050121


Ensuring the Involvement of Children in the Evaluation of New Tuberculosis Treatment Regimens

William J Burman, Mark F Cotton, Diana M Gibb, A. Sarah Walker, Andrew A Vernon, Peter R Donald

Neglected Diseases

Strategies to Reduce Mortality from Bacterial Sepsis in Adults in Developing Countries

Allen C Cheng, T. Eoin West, Direk Limmathurotsakul, Sharon J Peacock

Policy Forum

Assessing Antimalarial Efficacy in a Time of Change to Artemisinin-Based Combination Therapies: The Role of Médecins Sans Frontières

Jean-Paul Guthmann, Francesco Checchi, Ingrid van den Broek, Suna Balkan, Michel van Herp, Eric Comte, Oscar Bernal, Jean-Marie Kindermans, Sarah Venis, Dominique Legros, Philippe J Guerin

Guidelines and Guidance

The Use of Nonhuman Primate Models in HIV Vaccine Development

Cecilia Morgan, Marta Marthas, Christopher Miller, Ann Duerr, Cecilia Cheng-Mayer, Ronald Desrosiers, Jorge Flores, Nancy Haigwood, Shiu-Lok Hu, R. Paul Johnson, Jeffrey Lifson, David Montefiori, John Moore, Marjorie Robert-Guroff, Harriet Robinson, Steven Self, Lawrence Corey

Research in Translation

Mendelian Randomisation and Causal Inference in Observational Epidemiology

Nuala A Sheehan, Vanessa Didelez, Paul R Burton, Martin D Tobin

Learning Forum

An Acute Evolving Flaccid Quadriparesis in an Elderly Woman

Rebecca Lim, Sivakumar Sathasivam, Andrew J Larner

Research Articles

Prevention of SIV Rectal Transmission and Priming of T Cell Responses in Macaques after Local Pre-exposure Application of Tenofovir Gel

Martin Cranage, Sally Sharpe, Carolina Herrera, Alethea Cope, Mike Dennis, Neil Berry, Claire Ham, Jonathan Heeney, Naser Rezk, Angela Kashuba, Peter Anton, Ian McGowan, Robin Shattock

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Ewout W Steyerberg, Nino Mushkudiani, Pablo Perel, Isabella Butcher, Juan Lu, Gillian S McHugh, Gordon D Murray, Anthony Marmarou, Ian Roberts, J. Dik F Habbema, Andrew I. R Maas

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Two Faces of Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan in Spinal Cord Repair: A Role in Microglia/Macrophage Activation

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Eric J Brunner, Mika Kivimäki, Daniel R Witte, Debbie A Lawlor, George Davey Smith, Jackie A Cooper, Michelle Miller, Gordon D. O Lowe, Ann Rumley, Juan P Casas, Tina Shah, Steve E Humphries, Aroon D Hingorani, Michael G Marmot, Nicholas J Timpson, Meena Kumari

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