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December 2007

This month's cover image, showing a sign encouraging AIDS testing in a Zambian village, also expresses a more global theme: the need for ongoing awareness of the pandemic's status, as well as the status of research aimed at ending its ravages. In recognition of World AIDS Day (December 1, 2007), this issue of PLoS Medicine includes several papers on HIV diagnosis, prevention, and treatment, including research articles, commentaries, and an editorial.

A study conducted in Côte d'Ivoire (Desgrées-du-Loû, et al. e342) identifies three key junctures at which women participating in a mother-to-child HIV prevention program disclose their HIV status to their partners. A systematic review (Beyrer, et al. e339) concludes that men who have sex with men in the Americas, Asia, and Africa have a markedly greater risk of being HIV-infected than does the general population. Other research articles show that a test commonly used to confirm HIV infection can also be used to calculate how many recent infections have occurred in a population (Schüpbach, et al. e343), and that a mutation in a little-studied structural region of the AIDS virus can cause resistance to several HIV drugs (Tachedjian, et al. e335).

In the magazine section, cytomegalovirus retinitis is described as the neglected disease of the HIV epidemic (Heiden, et al. e334), and a workshop discussing humoral immune responses to HIV and approaches to designing vaccines is reported (Montefiori, et al. e348).

Image Credit: Image by jonrawlinson at (

Neglected Diseases

Cytomegalovirus Retinitis: The Neglected Disease of the AIDS Pandemic

David Heiden, Nathan Ford, David Wilson, William R Rodriguez, Todd Margolis, Bart Janssens, Martha Bedelu, Nini Tun, Eric Goemaere, Peter Saranchuk, Kalpana Sabapathy, Frank Smithuis, Emmanuel Luyirika, W. Lawrence Drew

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The Challenges of Chagas Disease— Grim Outlook or Glimmer of Hope?

Rick L Tarleton, Richard Reithinger, Julio A Urbina, Uriel Kitron, Ricardo E Gürtler

Policy Forums

Antibody-Based HIV-1 Vaccines: Recent Developments and Future Directions

David Montefiori, Quentin Sattentau, Jorge Flores, José Esparza, John Mascola, on behalf of a Working Group convened by the Global HIV Vaccine Enterprise

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Perspectives for the Treatment of Brucellosis in the 21st Century: The Ioannina Recommendations

Javier Ariza, Mile Bosilkovski, Antonio Cascio, Juan D Colmenero, Michael J Corbel, Matthew E Falagas, Ziad A Memish, Mohammad Reza Hasanjani Roushan, Ethan Rubinstein, Nikolaos V Sipsas, Javier Solera, Edward J Young, Georgios Pappas

Research Articles

N348I in the Connection Domain of HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Confers Zidovudine and Nevirapine Resistance

Soo-Huey Yap, Chih-Wei Sheen, Jonathan Fahey, Mark Zanin, David Tyssen, Viviane Dias Lima, Brian Wynhoven, Michael Kuiper, Nicolas Sluis-Cremer, P. Richard Harrigan, Gilda Tachedjian

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When Do HIV-Infected Women Disclose Their HIV Status to Their Male Partner and Why? A Study in a PMTCT Programme, Abidjan

Hermann Brou, Gérard Djohan, Renaud Becquet, Gérard Allou, Didier K Ekouevi, Ida Viho, Valériane Leroy, Annabel Desgrées-du-Loû, ANRS 1201/1202/1253 Ditrame Plus Study Group

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Assessment of Recent HIV-1 Infection by a Line Immunoassay for HIV-1/2 Confirmation

Jörg Schüpbach, Martin D Gebhardt, Zuzana Tomasik, Christoph Niederhauser, Sabine Yerly, Philippe Bürgisser, Lukas Matter, Meri Gorgievski, Rolf Dubs, Detlev Schultze, Ingrid Steffen, Corinne Andreutti, Gladys Martinetti, Bruno Güntert, Roger Staub, Synove Daneel, Pietro Vernazza

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Daily Dosing of Rifapentine Cures Tuberculosis in Three Months or Less in the Murine Model

Ian M Rosenthal, Ming Zhang, Kathy N Williams, Charles A Peloquin, Sandeep Tyagi, Andrew A Vernon, William R Bishai, Richard E Chaisson, Jacques H Grosset, Eric L Nuermberger

Plasmodium vivax Invasion of Human Erythrocytes Inhibited by Antibodies Directed against the Duffy Binding Protein

Brian T Grimberg, Rachanee Udomsangpetch, Jia Xainli, Amy McHenry, Tasanee Panichakul, Jetsumon Sattabongkot, Liwang Cui, Moses Bockarie, Chetan Chitnis, John Adams, Peter A Zimmerman, Christopher L King

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Detection of Intracellular Bacterial Communities in Human Urinary Tract Infection

David A Rosen, Thomas M Hooton, Walter E Stamm, Peter A Humphrey, Scott J Hultgren

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The Consumption of Khat and Other Drugs in Somali Combatants: A Cross-Sectional Study

Michael Odenwald, Harald Hinkel, Elisabeth Schauer, Frank Neuner, Maggie Schauer, Thomas R Elbert, Brigitte Rockstroh

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A Prospective Study of Red and Processed Meat Intake in Relation to Cancer Risk

Amanda J Cross, Michael F Leitzmann, Mitchell H Gail, Albert R Hollenbeck, Arthur Schatzkin, Rashmi Sinha

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Clustered Environments and Randomized Genes: A Fundamental Distinction between Conventional and Genetic Epidemiology

George Davey Smith, Debbie A Lawlor, Roger Harbord, Nic Timpson, Ian Day, Shah Ebrahim

Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration Risk Based on CFH, LOC387715/HTRA1, and Smoking

Anne E Hughes, Nick Orr, Chris Patterson, Hossein Esfandiary, Ruth Hogg, Vivienne McConnell, Giuliana Silvestri, Usha Chakravarthy

Targeting of Interferon-Beta to Produce a Specific, Multi-Mechanistic Oncolytic Vaccinia Virus

David H Kirn, Yaohe Wang, Fabrice Le Boeuf, John Bell, Steve H Thorne


Correction: A Candidate Gene Approach Identifies the TRAF1/C5 Region as a Risk Factor for Rheumatoid Arthritis

Fina A. S Kurreeman, Leonid Padyukov, Rute B Marques, Steven J Schrodi, Maria Seddighzadeh, Gerrie Stoeken-Rijsbergen, Annette H. M van der Helm-van Mil, Cornelia F Allaart, Willem Verduyn, Jeanine Houwing-Duistermaat, Lars Alfredsson, Ann B Begovich, Lars Klareskog, Tom W. J Huizinga, Rene E. M Toes

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