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Carbon trading, co-pollutants, and environmental equity: Evidence from California’s cap-and-trade program (2011–2015)

Fig 1

Disadvantaged neighborhoods host a disproportionate number of facilities covered by California’s cap-and-trade program.

Facilities were assigned to neighborhoods (census block groups) if they were located within them or within 2.5 miles of the geographic block group centroid of nearby block groups. Neighborhoods were compared based on their (A) racial/ethnic composition using American Community Survey 2011–2015 5-year estimates and (B) community disadvantage (includes block groups within the highest scoring 25% of census tracts based on CalEnviroScreen 3.0 score [31]) (n = 322 facilities; 38,066,920 residents; 23,190 US Census block groups). BG, census block group; GHG, greenhouse gas.

Fig 1