About the Authors

Christopher Abbosh

c.abbosh@ucl.ac.uk

Affiliation Cancer Research UK Lung Cancer Centre of Excellence, University College London Cancer Institute, London, United Kingdom

Charles Swanton

Affiliations Cancer Research UK Lung Cancer Centre of Excellence, University College London Cancer Institute, London, United Kingdom, Cancer Evolution and Genome Instability Laboratory, The Francis Crick Institute, London, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

I have read the journal’s policy and the authors of this manuscript have the following competing interests: C.A. receives research salary from AstraZeneca and is an AstraZeneca Fellow and acting study physician on the MERMAID studies. C.A. and C.S. holds pending patents in methods to detect tumor recurrence (PCT/GB2017/053289) and declare patent PCT/US2017/028013 for methods to detect lung cancer. C.A. has received speaker fees from Novartis, Roche Diagnostics, Bristol Myers Squibb, and AstraZeneca and was an advisory board member for AstraZeneca. C.S. acknowledges grant support from Pfizer, AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Roche-Ventana, Boehringer-Ingelheim, Invitae (collaboration in minimal residual disease sequencing technologies), and Ono Pharmaceutical; is an AstraZeneca advisory board member and chief investigator for the MeRmaiD1 and 2 clinical trials; has consulted for Pfizer, Novartis, GlaxoSmithKline, MSD, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Celgene, Amgen, AstraZeneca, Illumina, Genentech, Roche-Ventana, GRAIL, Medicxi, Bicycle Therapeutics, Metabomed and the Sarah Cannon Research Institute; has stock options in Apogen Biotechnologies, Epic Bioscience, and GRAIL; and has stock options and is co-founder of Achilles Therapeutics. C.S. holds patents relating to targeting neoantigens (PCT/EP2016/059401), identifying patient response to immune checkpoint blockade (PCT/EP2016/071471), determining HLA LOH (PCT/GB2018/052004), predicting survival rates of patients with cancer (PCT/GB2020/050221), and identifying patients who respond to cancer treatment (PCT/GB2018/051912), as well as a US patent relating to detecting tumor mutations (PCT/US2017/28013) and both a European and US patent related to identifying insertion/deletion mutation targets (PCT/GB2018/051892).