About the Authors

Qi Chen

Roles Conceptualization, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Project administration, Visualization, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing

qi.chen@ki.se

Affiliation Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

Yanli Zhang-James

Roles Methodology, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York, United States of America

Eric J. Barnett

Roles Methodology, Writing – review & editing

Affiliations Department of Neuroscience and Physiology, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York, United States of America, College of Medicine, MD Program, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York, United States of America

Paul Lichtenstein

Roles Supervision, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

Jussi Jokinen

Roles Writing – review & editing

Affiliations Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden, Department of Clinical Sciences/Psychiatry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden

Brian M. D’Onofrio

Roles Writing – review & editing

Affiliations Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden, Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, United States of America

Stephen V. Faraone

Roles Methodology, Supervision, Writing – review & editing

Affiliations Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York, United States of America, Department of Neuroscience and Physiology, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York, United States of America

Henrik Larsson

Roles Resources, Supervision, Writing – review & editing

Affiliations Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden, School of Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden

Seena Fazel

Roles Funding acquisition, Methodology, Supervision, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

I have read the journal's policy and the authors of this manuscript have the following competing interests: JJ participated in an Advisory Board for Janssen. In the past year, SVF received income, potential income, travel expenses continuing education support and/or research support from Vallon, Tris, Otsuka, Arbor, Ironshore, Shire, Akili Interactive Labs, VAYA, Ironshore, Sunovion, Supernus and Genomind. With his institution, he has US patent US20130217707 A1 for the use of sodium-hydrogen exchange inhibitors in the treatment of ADHD. HL has served as a speaker for Evolan Pharma and Shire/Takeda and has received research grants from Shire/Takeda; all outside the submitted work.