About the Authors

Junming Li

Contributed equally to this work with: Junming Li, Juan Liang

Roles Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Software, Visualization, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation School of Statistics, Shanxi University of Finance and Economics, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China

Juan Liang

Contributed equally to this work with: Junming Li, Juan Liang

Roles Conceptualization, Data curation, Supervision, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation National Office for Maternal and Child Health Surveillance of China, Department of Obstetrics, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China

Jinfeng Wang

Roles Conceptualization, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Methodology, Project administration, Writing – review & editing

wangjf@lreis.ac.cn (JW); zhujun1@163.com (JZ)

‡ These authors are joint senior authors.

Affiliations State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information System (LREIS), Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China

Zhoupeng Ren

Roles Conceptualization, Data curation, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Methodology, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information System (LREIS), Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China

Dian Yang

Roles Data curation, Investigation, Methodology, Software, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information System (LREIS), Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China

Yanping Wang

Roles Formal analysis, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation National Office for Maternal and Child Health Surveillance of China, Department of Obstetrics, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China

Yi Mu

Roles Formal analysis, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation National Office for Maternal and Child Health Surveillance of China, Department of Obstetrics, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China

Xiaohong Li

Roles Conceptualization, Data curation, Supervision, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation National Office for Maternal and Child Health Surveillance of China, Department of Obstetrics, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China

Mingrong Li

Roles Data curation, Formal analysis, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation National Office for Maternal and Child Health Surveillance of China, Department of Obstetrics, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China

Yuming Guo

Roles Conceptualization, Funding acquisition, Methodology, Writing – review & editing

‡ These authors are joint senior authors.

Affiliation School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia

Jun Zhu

Roles Conceptualization, Funding acquisition, Project administration, Supervision, Writing – review & editing

wangjf@lreis.ac.cn (JW); zhujun1@163.com (JZ)

‡ These authors are joint senior authors.

Affiliation National Office for Maternal and Child Health Surveillance of China, Department of Obstetrics, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China

Competing Interests

I have read the journal’s policy and the authors of this manuscript have the following competing interests: YG is a member of Editorial Board of PLOS Medicine. All other authors declare no competing interests.