About the Authors

Tara Gomes

Roles Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Methodology, Project administration, Validation, Visualization, Writing – original draft

GomesT@smh.ca

Affiliations Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St. Michael’s Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

David N. Juurlink

Roles Conceptualization, Funding acquisition, Methodology, Supervision, Writing – review & editing

Affiliations Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Tony Antoniou

Roles Conceptualization, Investigation, Methodology, Writing – review & editing

Affiliations Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St. Michael’s Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Muhammad M. Mamdani

Roles Conceptualization, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Methodology, Writing – review & editing

Affiliations Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St. Michael’s Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Department of Medicine, St. Michael’s Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

J. Michael Paterson

Roles Conceptualization, Investigation, Methodology, Writing – review & editing

Affiliations Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Department of Family Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

Wim van den Brink

Roles Conceptualization, Investigation, Methodology, Supervision, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Department of Psychiatry, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Competing Interests

TA is supported by a New Investigator Award from the Canadian Institutes for Health Research (CIHR). DNJ has provided expert opinion on medicolegal matters, some of which have involved opioids (in no instances has DNJ engaged in paid work for or against opioid manufacturers.) Income received from speaking or expert testimony is tithed by The Sunnybrook Department of Medicine as part of their academic practice plan. MMM has served on advisory boards and reports honoraria from Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly and Company, Glaxo Smith Kline, Hoffman La Roche, Novartis, Novo Nordisk, Pfizer, and Astra Zeneca, all outside the submitted work. WvdB received honoraria from Lundbeck, Indivior, Mundipharma, Novartis, Bioproject, Eli Lilly and Pfizer. All other authors report no conflicts of interest.