About the Authors

Mathieu Maheu-Giroux

mathieu.maheu-giroux@mcgill.ca

Affiliation Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Occupational Health, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada

Juan F. Vesga

Affiliation Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, St Mary’s Hospital, London, United Kingdom

Souleymane Diabaté

Affiliations Centre de recherche du CHU de Québec - Université Laval, Québec, Canada, Département d’infectiologie et santé publique, Université Alassane Ouattara, Bouaké, Côte d’Ivoire

Michel Alary

Affiliations Centre de recherche du CHU de Québec - Université Laval, Québec, Canada, Département de médecine sociale et préventive, Université Laval, Québec, Canada, Institut national de santé publique du Québec, Québec, Canada

Stefan Baral

Affiliation Key Populations Program, Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Daouda Diouf

Affiliation Enda Santé, Dakar, Sénégal

Kouamé Abo

Affiliation Programme National de Lutte contre le SIDA, Ministère de la Santé et de l’Hygiène Publique, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire

Marie-Claude Boily

Affiliation Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, St Mary’s Hospital, London, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

MA is the principal investigator on grants from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the Canadian Institutes for Health Research (CIHR), and the Public Health Agency of Canada. These grants are paid to MA's institution and are not related to the present manuscript. SB is a volunteer Associate Editor of PLOS ONE.

Author Contributions

Conceptualization: MCB MA. Data curation: MMG SD JFV SB. Formal analysis: MMG JFV. Funding acquisition: MA MCB MMG. Investigation: MMG SD JFV SB MCB. Methodology: JFV MCB MMG. Project administration: MA MCB. Resources: SD SB KA DD MA. Software: JFV MMG. Supervision: MCB MA. Validation: MMG DD JFV KA MA MCB SB SD. Visualization: MMG. Writing – original draft: MMG. Writing – review & editing: MMG DD JFV KA MA MCB SB SD.