About the Authors

Sarah H. Wild

sarah.wild@ed.ac.uk

Affiliation Usher Institute of Population Health Sciences and Informatics, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom

Janet Hanley

Affiliation Edinburgh Napier University School of Nursing, Midwifery and Social Care, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom

Stephanie C. Lewis

Affiliation Usher Institute of Population Health Sciences and Informatics, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom

John A. McKnight

Affiliations Metabolic Unit, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom, College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom

Lucy B. McCloughan

Affiliation Usher Institute of Population Health Sciences and Informatics, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom

Paul L. Padfield

Affiliation College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom

Richard A. Parker

Affiliation Usher Institute of Population Health Sciences and Informatics, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom

Mary Paterson

Affiliation Usher Institute of Population Health Sciences and Informatics, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom

Hilary Pinnock

Affiliation Usher Institute of Population Health Sciences and Informatics, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom

Aziz Sheikh

Affiliation Usher Institute of Population Health Sciences and Informatics, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom

Brian McKinstry

Affiliation Usher Institute of Population Health Sciences and Informatics, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

AS is a member of the Editorial Board of PLOS Medicine.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: BM JH SHW HP SCL JAM PLP. Performed the experiments: MP. Analyzed the data: RAP. Wrote the first draft of the manuscript: SHW. Contributed to the writing of the manuscript: SHW JH SCL JAM LBM PLP RAP MP HP AS BM. Enrolled patients: BM. Agree with the manuscript’s results and conclusions: SHW JH SCL JAM LBM PLP RAP MP HP AS BM. All authors have read, and confirm that they meet, ICMJE criteria for authorship.