About the Authors

Andrew M. McIntosh

andrew.mcintosh@ed.ac.uk

Affiliations Division of Psychiatry, University of Edinburgh, Royal Edinburgh Hospital, Edinburgh, United Kingdom, Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Lynsey S. Hall

Affiliation Division of Psychiatry, University of Edinburgh, Royal Edinburgh Hospital, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Yanni Zeng

Affiliation Division of Psychiatry, University of Edinburgh, Royal Edinburgh Hospital, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Mark J. Adams

Affiliation Division of Psychiatry, University of Edinburgh, Royal Edinburgh Hospital, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Jude Gibson

Affiliation Division of Psychiatry, University of Edinburgh, Royal Edinburgh Hospital, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Eleanor Wigmore

Affiliation Division of Psychiatry, University of Edinburgh, Royal Edinburgh Hospital, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Saskia P. Hagenaars

Affiliations Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom, Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Gail Davies

Affiliations Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom, Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Ana Maria Fernandez-Pujals

Affiliation Division of Psychiatry, University of Edinburgh, Royal Edinburgh Hospital, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Archie I. Campbell

Affiliation Institute for Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Toni-Kim Clarke

Affiliation Division of Psychiatry, University of Edinburgh, Royal Edinburgh Hospital, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Caroline Hayward

Affiliation Institute for Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Chris S. Haley

Affiliation Institute for Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

David J. Porteous

Affiliations Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom, Institute for Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Ian J. Deary

Affiliations Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom, Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Daniel J. Smith

Affiliation Institute of Health and Wellbeing, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom

Barbara I. Nicholl

Affiliation Institute of Health and Wellbeing, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom

David A. Hinds

Affiliation 23andMe Inc., Mountain View, California, United States of America

Amy V. Jones

Affiliation Pfizer WRD, Human Genetics and Computational Biomedicine, Granta Park, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Serena Scollen

Affiliation Pfizer WRD, Human Genetics and Computational Biomedicine, Granta Park, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Weihua Meng

Affiliation Division of Population Health Sciences, University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee, United Kingdom

Blair H. Smith

Affiliation Division of Population Health Sciences, University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee, United Kingdom

Lynne J. Hocking

Affiliation The Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, Aberdeen, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

AMM has received research funding from Pfizer, Janssen and Lilly in connection with other research. This funding had no role in the research presented in the current manuscript. DAH has received research funding from Pfizer for the current study. DAH is an employee of and owns stock options in 23andMe, Inc. WM has received research funding from Pfizer. BHS has received research funding from Pfizer and Napp Pharmaceuticals. LJH has received research funding from Pfizer. CHay has received research funding from Pfizer.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: AMM AIC CHal CHay DJP SPH GD IJD WM BHS LJH. Performed the experiments: AMM CHal CHay SPH GD BIN AVJ SS WM. Analyzed the data: AMM LSH YZ MJA JG EW SPH GD AMFP TKC CHal CHay DJP BIN AVJ DAH SS WM BHS. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: LSH YZ MJA JG EW AMFP TKC CHal CHay IJD DAH BHS LJH. Wrote the first draft of the manuscript: AMM CHal DJP DJS BIN AVJ SS BHS LJH. Contributed to the writing of the manuscript: AMM LSH YZ MJA JG EW AMFP SPH GD AIC TKC CHal CHay DJP IJD DJS BIN DAH AVJ SS WM BHS LJH. Enrolled patients: AIC DJP IJD DAH AVJ SS BHS. Agree with the manuscript’s results and conclusions: AMM LSH YZ MJA JG EW SPH GD AMFP AIC TKC CHal CHay DJP IJD DJS BIN AVJ DAH SS WM BHS LJH. All authors have read, and confirm that they meet, ICMJE criteria for authorship.