About the Authors

Marc Lipsitch

mlipsitc@hsph.harvard.edu

Affiliations Center for Communicable Disease Dynamics, Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Alison P. Galvani

Affiliations Department of Epidemiology (Microbial Diseases), Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America

Competing Interests

ML reports consulting income or honoraria from the following sources within the past five years: Novartis, Pfizer (pharmaceutical companies); AIR Worldwide, i3 Innovus, and Outcome Sciences (risk assessment and consulting companies). None of these relationships is ongoing. He has research grants with Pfizer (active) and PATH Vaccine Solutions (pending). AG reports consulting income from Vitality (a health insurer) and AIR Worldwide (a risk assessment company). ML is a member of the Editorial Board of PLOS Medicine.

Author Contributions

Analyzed the data: ML. Wrote the first draft of the manuscript: ML. Contributed to the writing of the manuscript: ML AG. ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: ML AG. Agree with manuscript results and conclusions: ML AG.