About the Authors

Myrsini Kaforou

Contributed equally to this work with: Myrsini Kaforou, Victoria J. Wright, Tolu Oni, Neil French

Affiliations Section of Paediatrics and Wellcome Trust Centre for Clinical Tropical Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom, Department of Genomics of Common Disease, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom

Victoria J. Wright

Contributed equally to this work with: Myrsini Kaforou, Victoria J. Wright, Tolu Oni, Neil French

Affiliation Section of Paediatrics and Wellcome Trust Centre for Clinical Tropical Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom

Tolu Oni

Contributed equally to this work with: Myrsini Kaforou, Victoria J. Wright, Tolu Oni, Neil French

Affiliations Section of Paediatrics and Wellcome Trust Centre for Clinical Tropical Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom, Clinical Infectious Diseases Research Initiative, Institute of Infectious Diseases & Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa

Neil French

Contributed equally to this work with: Myrsini Kaforou, Victoria J. Wright, Tolu Oni, Neil French

Affiliations Karonga Prevention Study, Chilumba, Karonga District, Malawi, Institute of Infection & Global Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

Suzanne T. Anderson

Affiliations Brighton and Sussex Medical School, University of Sussex, Brighton, United Kingdom, Malawi-Liverpool-Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Programme, University of Malawi College of Medicine, Blantyre, Malawi

Nonzwakazi Bangani

Affiliation Clinical Infectious Diseases Research Initiative, Institute of Infectious Diseases & Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa

Claire M. Banwell

Affiliations Brighton and Sussex Medical School, University of Sussex, Brighton, United Kingdom, Malawi-Liverpool-Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Programme, University of Malawi College of Medicine, Blantyre, Malawi

Andrew J. Brent

Affiliations Section of Paediatrics and Wellcome Trust Centre for Clinical Tropical Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom, KEMRI-Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Kilifi, Kenya

Amelia C. Crampin

Affiliations Karonga Prevention Study, Chilumba, Karonga District, Malawi, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

Hazel M. Dockrell

Affiliation Department of Immunology and Infection, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

Brian Eley

Affiliation Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa

Robert S. Heyderman

Affiliations Malawi-Liverpool-Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Programme, University of Malawi College of Medicine, Blantyre, Malawi, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Martin L. Hibberd

Affiliation Infectious Disease, Genome Institute of Singapore, Singapore

Florian Kern

Affiliation Brighton and Sussex Medical School, University of Sussex, Brighton, United Kingdom

Paul R. Langford

Affiliation Section of Paediatrics and Wellcome Trust Centre for Clinical Tropical Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom

Ling Ling

Affiliation Infectious Disease, Genome Institute of Singapore, Singapore

Marc Mendelson

Affiliation Division of Infectious Diseases and HIV Medicine, Department of Medicine, Groote Schuur Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa

Tom H. Ottenhoff

Affiliation Department of Infectious Diseases, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands

Femia Zgambo

Affiliation Karonga Prevention Study, Chilumba, Karonga District, Malawi

Robert J. Wilkinson

Contributed equally to this work with: Robert J. Wilkinson, Lachlan J. Coin, Michael Levin

Affiliations Section of Paediatrics and Wellcome Trust Centre for Clinical Tropical Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom, Clinical Infectious Diseases Research Initiative, Institute of Infectious Diseases & Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa, MRC National Institute for Medical Research, London, United Kingdom

Lachlan J. Coin

Contributed equally to this work with: Robert J. Wilkinson, Lachlan J. Coin, Michael Levin

Affiliations Department of Genomics of Common Disease, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom, Institute for Molecular Bioscience, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland, Australia

Michael Levin

m.levin@imperial.ac.uk

Contributed equally to this work with: Robert J. Wilkinson, Lachlan J. Coin, Michael Levin

Affiliation Section of Paediatrics and Wellcome Trust Centre for Clinical Tropical Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that patent applications have been filed for the Disease Risk score (GB1201766.1) and TB/LTBI and TB/OD signatures (GB1213636.2).

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: MK VJW NF STA AJB HMD BE RSH MLH FK PRL MM RJW LJC ML. Performed the experiments: MK VJW TO NB CMB LL FZ. Analyzed the data: MK VJW TO NF ACC RJW LJC ML. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: MLH THO. Wrote the first draft of the manuscript: MK VJW NF RJW LJC ML. Contributed to the writing of the manuscript: MK VJW TO NF ACC HMD RSH RJW LJC ML. ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: MK VJW TO NF STA NB CMB AJB ACC HMD BE RSH MLH FK PRL LL MM THO FZ RJW LJC ML. Agree with manuscript results and conclusions: MK VJW TO NF STA NB CMB AJB ACC HMD BE RSH MLH FK PRL LL MM THO FZ RJW LJC ML. Enrolled patients: TO NF NB FZ RJW.