About the Authors

Giorgio Cometto


Affiliation Global Health Workforce Alliance, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland

Kate Tulenko

Affiliation IntraHealth International, Washington (D.C.), United States of America

Adamson S. Muula

Affiliation College of Medicine, University of Malawi, Blantyre, Malawi

Ruediger Krech

Affiliation Department of Ethics and Social Determinants of Health, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland

Competing Interests

GC works at the Global Health Workforce Alliance, whose mandate includes advocating for solutions to global health workforce challenges, including migration. KT used to work for the World Bank (where one of the authors works), but did not work on this piece of research. ASM is the Dean of Postgraduate Studies and Research at the University of Malawi, College of Medicine. RK has no conflict of interest to declare.

Author Contributions

Wrote the first draft of the manuscript: GC. Contributed to the writing of the manuscript: GC KT ASM RK. ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: GC KT ASM RK. Agree with manuscript results and conclusions: GC KT ASM RK.