About the Authors

Gonzague Jourdain

Affiliations Unité Mixte Internationale 174, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD)-Programs for HIV Prevention and Treatment (PHPT), Chiang Mai, Thailand, Department of Medical Technology, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand, Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Sophie Le Cœur

Affiliations Unité Mixte Internationale 174, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD)-Programs for HIV Prevention and Treatment (PHPT), Chiang Mai, Thailand, Department of Medical Technology, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand, Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Unité Mixte de Recherche 196, Centre Français de la Population et du Développement, (INED-IRD-Paris V University), Paris, France

Nicole Ngo-Giang-Huong

Affiliations Unité Mixte Internationale 174, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD)-Programs for HIV Prevention and Treatment (PHPT), Chiang Mai, Thailand, Department of Medical Technology, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand, Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Patrinee Traisathit

Affiliation Department of Statistics, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand

Tim R. Cressey

Affiliations Unité Mixte Internationale 174, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD)-Programs for HIV Prevention and Treatment (PHPT), Chiang Mai, Thailand, Department of Medical Technology, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand, Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Federica Fregonese

Affiliation Unité Mixte Internationale 174, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD)-Programs for HIV Prevention and Treatment (PHPT), Chiang Mai, Thailand

Baptiste Leurent

Affiliation Unité Mixte Internationale 174, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD)-Programs for HIV Prevention and Treatment (PHPT), Chiang Mai, Thailand

Intira J. Collins

Affiliations Unité Mixte Internationale 174, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD)-Programs for HIV Prevention and Treatment (PHPT), Chiang Mai, Thailand, Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Malee Techapornroong

Affiliation Prapokklao Hospital, Ministry of Public Health, Chanthaburi, Thailand

Sukit Banchongkit

Affiliation Rayong Hospital, Ministry of Public Health, Rayong, Thailand

Sudanee Buranabanjasatean

Affiliation Mae Chan Hospital, Ministry of Public Health, Chiang Rai, Thailand

Guttiga Halue

Affiliation Phayao Provincial Hospital, Ministry of Public Health, Phayao, Thailand

Ampaipith Nilmanat

Affiliation Hat Yai Hospital, Ministry of Public Health, Songkla, Thailand

Nuananong Luekamlung

Affiliation Lamphun Hospital, Ministry of Public Health, Lamphun, Thailand

Virat Klinbuayaem

Affiliation Sanpatong Hospital, Ministry of Public Health, Chiang Mai, Thailand

Apichat Chutanunta

Affiliation Samutsakhon Hospital, Ministry of Public Health, Samutsakhon, Thailand

Pacharee Kantipong

Affiliation Chiangrai Prachanukroh Hospital, Ministry of Public Health, Chiang Rai, Thailand

Chureeratana Bowonwatanuwong

Affiliation Chonburi Hospital, Ministry of Public Health, Chonburi, Thailand

Rittha Lertkoonalak

Affiliation Maharat Nakhon Ratchasima Hospital, Ministry of Public Health, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand

Prattana Leenasirimakul

Affiliation Nakornping Hospital, Ministry of Public Health, Chiang Mai, Thailand

Somboon Tansuphasawasdikul

Affiliation Buddhachinaraj Hospital, Ministry of Public Health, Pitsanuloke, Thailand

Pensiriwan Sang-a-gad

Affiliation Ratchaburi Hospital, Ministry of Public Health, Ratchaburi, Thailand

Panita Pathipvanich

Affiliation Lampang Hospital, Ministry of Public Health, Lampang, Thailand

Srisuda Thongbuaban

Affiliation Mahasarakam Hospital, Ministry of Public Health, Mahasarakam, Thailand

Pakorn Wittayapraparat

Affiliation Bhuddasothorn Hospital, Ministry of Public Health, Chachoengsao, Thailand

Naree Eiamsirikit

Affiliation Samutprakarn Hospital, Ministry of Public Health, Samutprakarn, Thailand

Yuwadee Buranawanitchakorn

Affiliation Chiang Kham Hospital, Ministry of Public Health, Phayao, Thailand

Naruepon Yutthakasemsunt

Affiliation Nong Khai Hospital, Ministry of Public Health, Nong Khai, Thailand

Narong Winiyakul

Affiliation Regional Health Promotion Centre 6, Ministry of Public Health, Khon Kaen, Thailand

Luc Decker

Affiliations Unité Mixte Internationale 174, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD)-Programs for HIV Prevention and Treatment (PHPT), Chiang Mai, Thailand, Department of Medical Technology, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand

Sylvaine Barbier

Affiliation Unité Mixte Internationale 174, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD)-Programs for HIV Prevention and Treatment (PHPT), Chiang Mai, Thailand

Suporn Koetsawang

Affiliation Family Health Research Center, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand

Wasna Sirirungsi

Affiliation Department of Medical Technology, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand

Kenneth McIntosh

Affiliations Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Children's Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Sombat Thanprasertsuk

Affiliation Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi, Thailand

Marc Lallemant

marc@phpt.org

Affiliations Unité Mixte Internationale 174, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD)-Programs for HIV Prevention and Treatment (PHPT), Chiang Mai, Thailand, Department of Medical Technology, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand, Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

PHPT-3 study team

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: ML GJ SL NN TRC FF IJC KM SK WS STho. Performed the experiments: MT SBan SBur GH AN NL VK AC PK CB RL PL STan PS PP STho PW NE YB NY NW. Analyzed the data: PT BL SBar ML. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: LD. Wrote the first draft of the manuscript: ML SL GJ PT NN IJC KM TRC. Contributed to the writing of the manuscript: FF BL MT SBan SBur GH AN NL VK AC PK CB RL PL STan PS PP STho PW NE YB NY NW LD SBar SK WS STha. ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: GJ SL NN PT TRC FF BL IJC MT SBan SBur GH AN NL VK AC PK CB RL PL STan PS PP STho PW NE YB NY NW LD SBar SK WS KM STha ML. Agree with manuscript results and conclusions: GJ SL NN PT TRC FF BL IJC MT SBan SBur GH AN NL VK AC PK CB RL PL STan PS PP STho PW NE YB NY NW LD SBar SK WS KM STha ML. Enrolled patients: MT SBan SBur GH AN NL VK AC PK CB RL PL STan PS PP STho PW NE YB NY NW. Oversaw the implementation, training, and site coordination: SK WS STho.