About the Authors

Shona J. Livingstone

Affiliation University of Dundee, Dundee, United Kingdom

Helen C. Looker

Affiliation University of Dundee, Dundee, United Kingdom

Eleanor J. Hothersall

Affiliation University of Dundee, Dundee, United Kingdom

Sarah H. Wild

Affiliation University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Robert S. Lindsay

Affiliation University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom

John Chalmers

Affiliation National Health Service (NHS) Fife, Kirkcaldy, United Kingdom

Stephen Cleland

Affiliation NHS Greater Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom

Graham P. Leese

Affiliation University of Dundee, Dundee, United Kingdom

John McKnight

Affiliations University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom, NHS Lothian, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Andrew D. Morris

Affiliation University of Dundee, Dundee, United Kingdom

Donald W. M. Pearson

Affiliation University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, United Kingdom

Norman R. Peden

Affiliation NHS Forth Valley, Falkirk, United Kingdom

John R. Petrie

Affiliation University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom

Sam Philip

Affiliation University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, United Kingdom

Naveed Sattar

Affiliation University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom

Frank Sullivan

Affiliation University of Dundee, Dundee, United Kingdom

Helen M. Colhoun

h.colhoun@dundee.ac.uk

Affiliations University of Dundee, Dundee, United Kingdom, National Health Service (NHS) Fife, Kirkcaldy, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

The authors have declared the following competing interests: Sarah H. Wild has received two honoraria from Novo Nordisk, paid to her research funds in December 2010 and March 2011, for speaking at an advisory board and symposium on the topic of diabetes and cancer. Norman R. Peden has received travel grants from Pfizer Inc., Novo Nordisk, and Eli Lilly, and he holds shares in GlaxoSmithKline. John R. Petrie is the recipient of lecture honoraria, travel support and consultancy fees from pharmaceutical companies manufacturing thiazolodinediones (Takeda & GlaxoSmithKline), as well as from companies manufacturing other diabetes products (Novo Nordisk, Sanofi-Aventis). Recipient of support in kind from Merck-Serono for a charity-funded investigator-led study (REMOVAL NCT01483560). Helen M. Colhoun has served on clinical trial advisory panels for Sanofi-Aventis, Pfizer Inc., Novartis Pharmaceuticals, and Eli Lilly. She has also received research support from Roche Pharmaceuticals, Pfizer Inc., Eli Lilly, Boehringer Ingelheim, and Astra Zeneca as part of an EU Innovative Medicines Initiative research grant. None of these activities directly relate to this manuscript. Shona J. Livingstone, Helen C. Looker, Eleanor J. Hothersall, Robert S. Lindsay, John Chalmers, Stephen Cleland, Graham P. Leese, John McKnight, Andrew D. Morris, Donald W. M. Pearson, Sam Philip, Naveed Sattar, and Frank Sullivan have no conflicts of interest to declare.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: HMC SL HL JM AM JP SP. Performed the experiments: HMC SL HL. Analyzed the data: HMC SL HL EH SW GL JM DP. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: RL JM AM NP SP NS HMC. Wrote the first draft of the manuscript: SL HMC HL EH FS. Contributed to the writing of the manuscript: SL HL EH SW RL JC SC GL JM AM DP NP JP SP NS FS HMC. ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: SL HL EH SW RL JC SC GL JM AM DP NP JP SP NS FS HMC. Agree with manuscript results and conclusions: SL HL EH SW RL JC SC GL JM AM DP NP JP SP NS FS HMC.