About the Authors

Joseph Ana

Affiliations Calabar Women and Children Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria, Faculty of Health Sciences, Cross River University of Technology, Calabar, Nigeria

Tracey Koehlmoos

Affiliation ICDDR,B, Dhaka, Bangladesh

Richard Smith


Affiliation UnitedHealth Chronic Disease Initiative, London, United Kingdom

Lijing L. Yan

Affiliation The George Institute for Global Health at Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, China

Competing Interests

RS was, as described in the article, much involved in the Singh case. He is also a trustee of the UK Research Integrity Office. All other authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Wrote the first draft of the manuscript: RS. Contributed to the writing of the manuscript: RS TK JA LLY. ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: RS TK JA LLY. Agree with manuscript results and conclusions: RS TK JA LLY. Discussed the subject, designed the survey, and sent it to colleagues, and gathered material from their own countries: RS TK JA LLY.