About the Authors

Lawrence Long

llong@heroza.org

Affiliations Health Economics and Epidemiology Research Office, Wits Health Consortium, Johannesburg, South Africa, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa

Alana Brennan

Affiliations Health Economics and Epidemiology Research Office, Wits Health Consortium, Johannesburg, South Africa, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, Center for Global Health and Development, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Matthew P. Fox

Affiliations Health Economics and Epidemiology Research Office, Wits Health Consortium, Johannesburg, South Africa, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, Center for Global Health and Development, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Department of Epidemiology, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Buyiswa Ndibongo

Affiliations Health Economics and Epidemiology Research Office, Wits Health Consortium, Johannesburg, South Africa, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa

Imogen Jaffray

Affiliation Department of Epidemiology, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Ian Sanne

Affiliations Health Economics and Epidemiology Research Office, Wits Health Consortium, Johannesburg, South Africa, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, Department of Epidemiology, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Sydney Rosen

Affiliations Health Economics and Epidemiology Research Office, Wits Health Consortium, Johannesburg, South Africa, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, Center for Global Health and Development, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared no competing interests. IS is the director and IJ an employee of Right to Care, an organization that provides technical assistance to the study sites.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: LL AB MPF IS IJ SR. Analyzed the data: LL AB MPF SR. Wrote the first draft of the paper: LL SR. Wrote the paper: LL AB MPF BN IJ IS SR. ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: LL AB MPF BN IJ IS SR. Agree with the manuscript's results and conclusions: LL AB MPF BN IJ IS SR.