About the Authors

James V. Lavery


Affiliation Centre for Research on Inner City Health & Centre for Global Health Research, Keenan Research Centre in the Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute of St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Canada, and Dalla Lana School of Public Health and Joint Centre for Bioethics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada

Competing Interests

The author declares he has no competing interests in relation to this article. The author reports that he has conducted an educational session about ethical challenges in international vaccine trials for Sanofi Pasteur, and an educational session and consultation about the effective use of Community Advisory Boards for Pfizer, Inc., and has been paid for these activities.

Author Contributions

ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: JVL. Wrote the manuscript: JVL.