About the Authors

Andrew K. Wills

a.wills@nshd.mrc.ac.uk

Affiliation Medical Research Council Unit for Lifelong Health and Ageing, University College London, London, United Kingdom

Debbie A. Lawlor

Affiliation Medical Research Council Centre for Causal Analyses in Translational Epidemiology, School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

Fiona E. Matthews

Affiliation Medical Research Council Biostatistics Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Avan Aihie Sayer

Affiliation Medical Research Council Epidemiology Resource Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom

Eleni Bakra

Affiliation Medical Research Council Biostatistics Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Yoav Ben-Shlomo

Affiliation School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

Michaela Benzeval

Affiliation Medical Research Council/Chief Scientist Office Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom

Eric Brunner

Affiliation Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom

Rachel Cooper

Affiliation Medical Research Council Unit for Lifelong Health and Ageing, University College London, London, United Kingdom

Mika Kivimaki

Affiliation Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom

Diana Kuh

Affiliation Medical Research Council Unit for Lifelong Health and Ageing, University College London, London, United Kingdom

Graciela Muniz-Terrera

Affiliation Medical Research Council Biostatistics Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Rebecca Hardy

Affiliation Medical Research Council Unit for Lifelong Health and Ageing, University College London, London, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: AKW DAL FEM AAS EB YBS MB EB RC MK DK GMT RH. Agree with the manuscript's results and conclusions: AKW DAL FEM AAS EB YBS MB EB RC MK DK GMT RH. Designed the experiments/the study: AKW DAL MK DK RH. Analyzed the data: AKW. Collected data/did experiments for the study: AAS YBS MB EB MK. Enrolled patients: AAS YBS DK. Wrote the first draft of the paper: AKW. Contributed to the writing of the paper: AKW DAL FEM EB YBS MB EB RC MK DK GMT RH. Developed the aims and analysis plan for the study: AKW DAL RH. Co-wrote the grant that formulated the ideas of pulling together these studies: FEM. Helped maintain the data when the MRC Unit was closed down and helped in its transfer to Bristol where the study group act as custodians; helped design the protocol for the phase V follow-up; enrolled patients for phase V only; helped extract the relevant variables for this paper; helped the lead author with the use and interpretation of the relevant variables: YB-S. Principal Investigator of one of cohorts included in paper: MB. Directs the MRC National Survey of Health and Development, one of the cohorts contributing to paper, and co-authored the grant that funded the work presented in the paper: DK.