About the Authors

Jamie Bartram

Affiliation Water Institute, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America

Sandy Cairncross


Affiliation London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingom

Competing Interests

SC leads a UK Department for International Development-funded research programme consortium for research in sanitation and hygiene.

Author Contributions

ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: JB SC. Agree with the manuscript's results and conclusions: JB SC. Wrote the first draft of the paper: JB. Contributed to the writing of the paper: JB SC.