About the Authors

Simon Capewell


Affiliation Department of Public Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Hilary Graham

Affiliation Department of Health Sciences, University of York, Heslington, York, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

SC was Vice-Chair of the NICE Programme Development Group on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Populations. HG has long advocated policies to reduce social inequalities. This paper arises from discussions at NICE, but does not necessarily reflect the views of NICE.

Author Contributions

ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: SC HG. Agree with the manuscript's results and conclusions: SC HG. Analyzed the data: SC. Collected data/did experiments for the study: SC. Wrote the first draft of the paper: SC. Contributed to the writing of the paper: HG. Made substantial contributions to conception, design, and intellectual content as well as to revisions to drafts of the paper, and approved the version to be published: HG.