About the Authors

Richard J. Pearce

Affiliation London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Department of Infectious Tropical Diseases, London, United Kingdom

Hirva Pota

Affiliation London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Department of Infectious Tropical Diseases, London, United Kingdom

Marie-Solange B. Evehe

Affiliation Biotechnology Centre, University of Yaounde I, Cameroon

El-Hadj Bâ

Affiliation Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Dakar, Senegal

Ghyslain Mombo-Ngoma

Affiliations Medical Research Unit, Albert Schweitzer Hospital, Lambaréné, Gabon, Department of Parasitology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany

Allen L. Malisa

Affiliations Ifakara Health Research and Development Center (IHRDC), Ifakara, Kilombero District, Tanzania, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Morogoro, Tanzania

Rosalynn Ord

Affiliation London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Department of Infectious Tropical Diseases, London, United Kingdom

Walter Inojosa

Affiliation Doctors with Africa CUAMM Angola, Luanda, Angola

Alexandre Matondo

Affiliation Director of Uige Provincial Hospital, Uige Angola

Diadier A. Diallo

Affiliation Centre National de Recherche et de Formation Sur Le Paludisme (CNRFP), Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

Wilfred Mbacham

Affiliation Biotechnology Centre, University of Yaounde I, Cameroon

Ingrid V. van den Broek

Affiliation Médecins Sans Frontières, Manson Unit, London, United Kingdom

Todd D. Swarthout

Affiliation Médecins Sans Frontières, Manson Unit, London, United Kingdom

Asefaw Getachew

Affiliation Head of Malaria Department, Tigray Bureau of Health, Tigray, Ethiopia

Seyoum Dejene

Affiliation Médecins Sans Frontières – Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Martin P. Grobusch

Affiliations Medical Research Unit, Albert Schweitzer Hospital, Lambaréné, Gabon, Infectious Diseases Unit Division of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, National Health Laboratory Service and School of Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa

Fanta Njie

Affiliation Medical Research Council Laboratories, The Gambia

Samuel Dunyo

† Deceased.

Affiliation Medical Research Council Laboratories, The Gambia

Margaret Kweku

Affiliation London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Department of Infectious Tropical Diseases, London, United Kingdom

Seth Owusu-Agyei

Affiliations London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Department of Infectious Tropical Diseases, London, United Kingdom, Kintampo Health Research Centre, Ghana

Daniel Chandramohan

Affiliation London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Department of Infectious Tropical Diseases, London, United Kingdom

Maryline Bonnet

Affiliation Epicentre, Paris, France

Jean-Paul Guthmann

Affiliations Epicentre, Paris, France, Institut de Veille Sanitaire, Paris, France

Sian Clarke

Affiliation London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Department of Infectious Tropical Diseases, London, United Kingdom

Karen I. Barnes

Affiliation Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa

Elizabeth Streat

Affiliation Ministry of Health, Matola, Maputo Province, Mozambique

Stark T. Katokele

Affiliation National Malaria Control Programme, Ministry of Health and Social Services, Old State Hospital Grounds, Windhoek, Namibia

Petrina Uusiku

Affiliation National Malaria Control Programme, Ministry of Health and Social Services, Old State Hospital Grounds, Windhoek, Namibia

Chris O. Agboghoroma

Affiliation National Hospital Abuja, Garki Abuja, Nigeria

Olufunmilayo Y. Elegba

Affiliation National Hospital Abuja, Garki Abuja, Nigeria

Badara Cissé

Affiliation Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar, Dakar, Senegal

Ishraga E. A-Elbasit

Affiliation Malaria Research Centre, Department of Biochemistry, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan

Hayder A. Giha

Affiliations Malaria Research Centre, Department of Biochemistry, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain

S. Patrick Kachur

Affiliation Malaria Branch, Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne and Enteric Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

Caroline Lynch

Affiliation London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Department of Infectious Tropical Diseases, London, United Kingdom

John B. Rwakimari

Affiliation Ministry of Health of Uganda, National Malaria Control Programme, Kampala, Uganda

Pascalina Chanda

Affiliation National Malaria Control Centre, Lusaka, Zambia

Moonga Hawela

Affiliation National Malaria Control Centre, Lusaka, Zambia

Brian Sharp

† Deceased.

Affiliation Malaria Research Lead Programme, Medical Research Council, Durban, South Africa

Inbarani Naidoo

Affiliation Malaria Research Lead Programme, Medical Research Council, Durban, South Africa

Cally Roper

Cally.Roper@lshtm.ac.uk

Affiliation London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Department of Infectious Tropical Diseases, London, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: R Pearce H Pota M Evehe E Ba G Mombo-Ngoma A Malisa R Ord W Inojosa A Matondo D Diallo W Mbacham I van den Broek T Swarthout A Getachew S Dejene M Grobusch F Njie S Dunyo M Kweku S Owusu-Agyei D Chandramohan M Bonnet J Guthmann S Clarke K Barnes E Streat S Katokele P Uusiku C Agboghoroma O Elegba B Cissé I A-Elbasit H Giha S Kachur C Lynch J Rwakimari P Chanda M Hawela B Sharp I Naidoo C Roper. Agree with the manuscript's results and conclusions: R Pearce H Pota M Evehe E Ba G Mombo-Ngoma A Malisa R Ord W Inojosa A Matondo D Diallo W Mbacham I van den Broek T Swarthout A Getachew S Dejene M Grobusch F Njie S Dunyo M Kweku S Owusu-Agyei D Chandramohan M Bonnet J Guthmann S Clarke K Barnes E Streat S Katokele P Uusiku C Agboghoroma O Elegba B Cissé I A-Elbasit H Giha S Kachur C Lynch J Rwakimari P Chanda M Hawela B Sharp I Naidoo C Roper. Designed the experiments/the study: H Pota W Mbacham M Kweku S Owusu-Agyei C Lynch C Roper. Analyzed the data: R Pearce H Pota M Evehe A Malisa M Grobusch S Clarke B Cissé C Lynch C Roper. Collected data/did experiments for the study: R Pearce H Pota M Evehe G Mombo-Ngoma R Ord W Inojosa D Diallo W Mbacham I van den Broek T Swarthout A Getachew S Dejene F Njie S Dunyo M Kweku S Owusu-Agyei D Chandramohan J Guthmann S Clarke K Barnes S Katokele P Uusiku C Agboghoroma O Elegba I A-Elbasit H Giha S Kachur C Lynch P Chanda M Hawela B Sharp I Naidoo. Enrolled patients: W Inojosa A Matondo D Diallo W Mbacham T Swarthout A Getachew S Dejene S Dunyo M Kweku S Owusu-Agyei M Bonnet S Clarke K Barnes S Katokele P Uusiku B Cissé I A-Elbasit H Giha C Lynch P Chanda M Hawela. Wrote the first draft of the paper: R Pearce C Roper. Contributed to the writing of the paper: R Pearce A Malisa D Diallo W Mbacham M Grobusch S Owusu-Agyei D Chandramohan M Bonnet J Guthmann S Clarke K Barnes C Agboghoroma B Cissé I A-Elbasit H Giha S Kachur C Lynch J Rwakimari P Chanda I Naidoo C Roper. Performed microsatellite lab analysis for all populations and typing of point mutations in the dhps gene for some of the populations: R Pearce. Performed lab experiments (DNA extraction PCR and point mutation analysis) for many of the populations involved in the study: H Pota. Collected and genotyped samples from Yaounde, Garoua and Mutengene in Cameroon in the Gates Malaria funded project of W Mbacham.: M Evehe. Collected data on patients in Gabon; after completion of the clinical trial performed DNA extraction, PCR, amplification, and point mutation characterization on those samples: G Mombo-Ngoma. Contributed to the molecular genotyping of samples: R Ord. Enrolled malaria patients and collected samples in the study at Uige Hospital Angola in 2004: W Inojosa. Leading researcher of antimalarial drug studies in DRC and Congo, where blood samples of malaria patients were collected, and provided all the information necessary: I van den Broek. As trial coordinator in Shabunda, Democratic Republic of the Congo, coordinated the trial and participated in enrolling patients and collection of biological samples: T Swarthout. Involved in facilitating in the process of patient enrollment collection of specimen and preservation, including the safe shipment of the specimens to the reference laboratory: A Getachew. Packed and shipped sent samples for further advanced lab analysis: S Dejene. Supervised the study-related field work and patient enrollment in Lambarene, Gabon: M Grobusch. Prepared and provided samples for the study: F Njie. Designed coordinated analyzed and published several of the studies that contributed to this analysis: J Guthmann. Designed and implemented a study to examine drug efficacy and selection for drug resistance (which included the genotyping analysis and interpretation of molecular markers of SP resistance) amongst schoolchildren receiving intermittent preventive treatment in Western Kenya in 2006: S Clarke. Collected samples for the study in Namibia: S Katokele. Responsible for the supervision and funding of all field work in Eastern Sudan, collection of clinical data blood samples, DNA extraction, and part of the genotyping: I A-Elbasit H Giha. Designed studies and collected data from southern Tanzania sites that were included in the analysis presented in this paper: S Kachur. Involved in the Ugandan part of the study, which involved enrollment of patients at two sites in Uganda collection of samples, and data analysis: C Lynch. Conducted data collection for the Zambia samples, including site identification and supervision of field work and mobilised resources to meet financial gaps of the study: P Chanda. Collated literature review data on dhps and facilitated collaboration for sample collection in sites in two countries: I Naidoo.