About the Authors

Dave A Chokshi

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: daveash@med.upenn.edu

Mahamadou A Thera
Michael Parker
Mahamadou Diakite
Julie Makani
Dominic P Kwiatkowski
Ogobara K Doumbo

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

DAC, DPK, and OKD conceived of the idea behind the paper. DAC, MAT, MP, MD, JM, DPK, and OKD contributed to writing the paper. MAT, MD, and OKD coordinated the genetic studies in Mali referred to in the paper; JM did the same for the studies conducted in Tanzania.