About the Authors

Ezekiel J Emanuel
Trudo Lemmens
Carl Elliot

Competing Interests

EJE has spoken at and received an honorarium from many different not-for-profit academic medical centers, some that review their own protocols and others, including the University of Iowa and Johns Hopkins University, that have outsourced their protocols to a for-profit institutional review board (IRB). He has served on a subcommittee of the Dana-Farber IRB and on both commercial and noncommercial data safety monitoring boards. He was a member of the Consortium to Examine Clinical Research Ethics, which is financed by the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation to collect primary data on and critically examine human subject protection (members of the consortium are listed at http://www.ddcf.org/page.asp?pageId=302). TL and CE have both served on academic IRBs.