About the Authors

Nkoyo Faal

Affiliation Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, Banjul, Gambia

Robin L Bailey

Affiliation London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

David Jeffries

Affiliation Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, Banjul, Gambia

Hassan Joof

Affiliation Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, Banjul, Gambia

Isatou Sarr

Affiliation Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, Banjul, Gambia

Mass Laye

Affiliation National Eye Care Programme, Kerewan District Health Centre, Kerewan, Gambia

David C. W Mabey

Affiliation London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

Martin J Holland

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: Martin.Holland@lshtm.ac.uk

Affiliations Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, Banjul, Gambia , London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

RLB, DJ, DCWM, and MJH designed the study. NF, HJ, IS, ML, and MJH enrolled patients. NF, IS, and MJH performed the laboratory investigations. NF, RLB, DJ, and MJH analyzed the data. NF, RLB, DJ, DCWM, and MJH contributed to writing the paper.