About the Authors

Olga Kapellou

Affiliation Department of Paediatrics, Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital, London, United Kingdom

Serena J Counsell

Affiliation Division of Clinical Sciences, Imperial College, and MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Hammersmith Hospital, London, United Kingdom

Nigel Kennea

Affiliation Department of Paediatrics, Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital, London, United Kingdom

Leigh Dyet

Affiliations Department of Paediatrics, Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital, London, United Kingdom , Division of Clinical Sciences, Imperial College, and MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Hammersmith Hospital, London, United Kingdom

Nadeem Saeed

Affiliation Division of Clinical Sciences, Imperial College, and MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Hammersmith Hospital, London, United Kingdom

Jaroslav Stark

Affiliation Department of Mathematics, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom

Elia Maalouf

Affiliation Department of Paediatrics, Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital, London, United Kingdom

Philip Duggan

Affiliation Department of Paediatrics, Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital, London, United Kingdom

Morenike Ajayi-Obe

Affiliation Department of Paediatrics, Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital, London, United Kingdom

Jo Hajnal

Affiliation Division of Clinical Sciences, Imperial College, and MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Hammersmith Hospital, London, United Kingdom

Joanna M Allsop

Affiliation Division of Clinical Sciences, Imperial College, and MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Hammersmith Hospital, London, United Kingdom

James Boardman

Affiliations Department of Paediatrics, Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital, London, United Kingdom , Division of Clinical Sciences, Imperial College, and MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Hammersmith Hospital, London, United Kingdom

Mary A Rutherford

Affiliation Division of Clinical Sciences, Imperial College, and MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Hammersmith Hospital, London, United Kingdom

Frances Cowan

Affiliations Department of Paediatrics, Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital, London, United Kingdom , Division of Clinical Sciences, Imperial College, and MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Hammersmith Hospital, London, United Kingdom

A. David Edwards

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: david.edwards@imperial.ac.uk

Affiliations Department of Paediatrics, Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital, London, United Kingdom , Division of Clinical Sciences, Imperial College, and MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Hammersmith Hospital, London, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

ADE designed the study. NK, EM, PD, and MAO enrolled patients, obtained informed consent from parents, and collected MR image data. OK, MAO, and JMA quantified brain volume and surface area, using software created by NS. SJC and JH were involved with the pulse sequence development and optimisation. SJC and JMA acquired MR images used in this study. JS and ADE designed the mathematical model, carried out the statistical analysis, participated in fitting the data to the model, and contributed to the biomedical interpretation of the model results. MAR reviewed all MR images. FC was responsible for neurodevelopmental examinations, and LD collated the neurodevelopmental data. NK and LD collated clinical information for each infant. OK, SJC, NK, LD, JS, JH, JB, MAR, FC, and ADE contributed to writing the paper.