Genotype to phenotype: Diet-by-mitochondrial DNA haplotype interactions drive metabolic flexibility and organismal fitness
Development time for Alstonville larvae was faster than Dahomey because the V161L ND4 mutation in Dahomey caused reduced flow through the electron transport system. Red indicates elevated in Dahomey, blue higher in Alstonville. The mutation created a backup of glucose, which was likely metabolised to hexose, trehalose, and D-maltose. Lactate and alanine were also elevated. The mutation also caused an increase in ROS production, which resulted in an oxidative stress P450 response (including elevated levels of GstE1 and GstE5), high SOD activity and a decrease in ATP level.