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The Rise and Fall of an Evolutionary Innovation: Contrasting Strategies of Venom Evolution in Ancient and Young Animals

Fig 7

Schematic tree of life depicts the evolution of venom in animals, where blue, red and orange colored lines represent lineages that utilize venom for defense, predation or intraspecific needs, respectively.

Divergence times of lineages examined in this study (labels indicated in red) have been indicated. Pie charts depict the proportion of synonymous (dS), non-synonymous (dN) mutations and the number of significantly detected positively selected sites (#PS) in the venom-encoding genes of the respective lineage. Depicted phylogenetic relationships are based on Ref. [13].

Fig 7