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The Rise and Fall of an Evolutionary Innovation: Contrasting Strategies of Venom Evolution in Ancient and Young Animals

Fig 4

Molecular evolution of venom in cnidarians (A) and scorpions (B).

A plot of site-specific ω against amino acid positions for various cnidarian and scorpion venom-encoding genes is presented in panel A and B, respectively. Significantly detected positively selected sites (model 8; Bayes Empirical Bayes approach) are presented as large red circles. The red horizontal line represents the line of neutrality: points above and below this line indicate positive and negative selection, respectively. A corresponding bar plot is provided, which shows the computed ω value for the respective toxin class. Bar-plot color code: Panel A 1) SCRiPs; 2) JFTs; 3) Hydralysins; 4) Aerolysin-related toxins in sea anemone; 5) Actinoporins; 6) KTx Type 1; 7) KTx Type 3; 8) NaTx; Panel B 1) Short KTx; 2) Long KTx; 3) Chloride; 4) β-NaTx; 5) α-NaTx; 6) ICK; 7) DDH; 8) Glycine-rich toxins; 9) Bradykinin Potentiating Peptides; 10) Anionic; 11) Antimicrobial peptide toxins.

Fig 4