The Genome and Development-Dependent Transcriptomes of Pyronema confluens: A Window into Fungal Evolution
A. Fruiting body development in P. confluens is blue light-dependent. P. confluens was grown on minimal medium in constant light of different wavelengths as indicated (for filter characteristics see Figure S8). The left column shows petri dishes, the middle column sections from petri dishes (bar 500 µm), and the right column shows mature apothecia in those cases where fruiting bodies are formed (bar 100 µm). Blue light is the effective part of the visible spectrum and induces apothecia formation, similar to white light. Under other light conditions or in darkness, sometimes mycelial aggreagates are formed that can be darkly pigmented, but do not contain sexual structures (e.g. visible in section from petri dish in the dark). B and C. Expression of homologs of genes that are involved in blue light responses (wc1, wc2, frq), in light responses and/or fruiting body formation (pro44), are photoreceptors for other wavelengths (orp1, phy1, phy2) or carotenoid biosynthesis genes (al1, al2, al3) in other fungi (Table 2). Transcript levels after 4 d of illumination with white, blue, or green light compared to 4 d in darkness (DD) are shown in B, short term light induction (5–60 min after growth in darkness for 4 d) in C. P. confluens was grown in minimal liquid medium and harvested under far-red light. Transcript levels were determined by qRT-PCR from at least two independent biological replicates; ratios versus DD samples are shown, error bars in B indicate standard deviation, for standard deviations for short term light induction in C, see Table S10.