Long-Range Regulatory Polymorphisms Affecting a GABA Receptor Constitute a Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) for Social Behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans
(A) Dominance test between N2 and the II-QTL (n = 7). (B) Quantitative complementation tests between the HW II-QTL, N2, and deletion mutants abts-3(ok368) and exp-1(ox276). Heterozygote F1 progeny from crosses were identified using a fluorescent marker (n = 6 assays for each cross). Yellow ‘x’ denotes a deletion mutation. A transgenic fluorescent marker used to identify F1s in this cross elevated bordering slightly and may also accentuate aggregation (see Figure S4). (C) Analysis of variance of data in panel (B). Two-way ANOVA used Mutation (N2 vs mutant allele) and QTL (N2 vs II-QTL) as variables and was performed for both abts-3(ok368) and exp-1(ox276) mutations. A significant P value for the Mut×QTL interaction indicates failure to complement, a defining feature of quantitative trait genes , . (D) Behaviors of exp-1(ox276), a deletion allele, exp-1(n2570), exp-1(n2641), exp-1(n2676), and exp-1(sa6) missense alleles, and exp-1(ox276)/exp-1(sa6) trans-heterozygotes. Yellow ‘x’ denotes a mutation. Error bars, s.e.m. In (A) and (D), * P<0.05, ** P<0.01, *** P<0.001 by ANOVA with Dunnett test. ns, not significant.