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Endogenous Viral Elements in Animal Genomes

Figure 5

Genetic structures and phylogenetic relationships of EVEs related to ssDNA viruses.

(a) Summary genetic structures of ssDNA EVE sets shown relative to the genus type species. The most intact elements are shown for each host taxon. EVE hosts (bold) and abbreviations for viral type species (bold, underline), and the total number of matches identified (italic) are indicated to the left of each EVE structure. Bars behind ORFs indicate non-coding viral DNA. Intact ORFs (circles) and expressed sequences (crosses) are indicated. 1 The M. lucifugus element is a composite of two genomic contigs; 2 Structures represent a composite of semi-overlapping fragments; 3 Element has undergone genomic rearrangements, with the arrow indicating the direction of the rearranged fragment. (b) Phylogenetic relationships of dependovirus EVEs and representative exogenous viruses, based on NS1 gene and rooted on snake parvovirus. A dolphin EVE (indicated by an asterisk) groups robustly with avian rather than mammalian isolates. (d) Phylogenetic relationships of parvovirus EVEs and representative exogenous viruses, based on NS1 gene and rooted on Aleutian mink disease virus. Support for both ML phylogenetic trees was evaluated using 1,000 nonparametric bootstrap replicates. EVEs potentially comprising a new genus are indicated. (d) Phylogenetic relationships of circovirus EVEs and representative exogenous viruses, based on the Rep gene and rooted on avian circoviruses, with support for the ML phylogenetic tree evaluated using 1,000 nonparametric bootstrap replicates. Taxa that are shown as genetic structures in (a) are indicated by colored squares (EVEs) and circles (exogenous viruses) (a). Abbreviations: AAV = adeno-associated virus; MMV = minute virus of mice, AMDV = Aleutian mink disease virus, PV = parvovirus, CV = circovirus, PCV = porcine circovirus; HSAV = Human stool-associated circular virus.

Figure 5

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1001191.g005