About the Authors

Michelle K. Scotland

Affiliations Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, New York, United States of America, Witebsky Center for Microbial Pathogenesis and Immunology, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, New York, United States of America

Justin M. H. Heltzel

Affiliations Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, New York, United States of America, Witebsky Center for Microbial Pathogenesis and Immunology, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, New York, United States of America

James E. Kath

Contributed equally to this work with: James E. Kath, Jung-Suk Choi

Affiliation Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Jung-Suk Choi

Contributed equally to this work with: James E. Kath, Jung-Suk Choi

Affiliation Department of Chemistry, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America

Anthony J. Berdis

Affiliations Department of Chemistry, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America, The Center for Gene Regulation in Health and Disease, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America

Joseph J. Loparo

Affiliation Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Mark D. Sutton

mdsutton@buffalo.edu

Affiliations Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, New York, United States of America, Witebsky Center for Microbial Pathogenesis and Immunology, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, New York, United States of America, Program in Genetics, Genomics and Bioinformatics, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, New York, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: MKS JMHH JEK JSC AJB JJL MDS. Performed the experiments: MKS JMHH JEK JSC. Analyzed the data: MKS JMHH JEK JSC AJB JJL MDS. Wrote the paper: MKS JEK AJB JJL MDS.